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Im going to do a giveaway for world of warcraft and movie inspired skins codes for my YouTube channel.
Is there anybody on DeviantArt (In Texas) who do drawings of dc comic book characters?
Is there anybody on DeviantArt (In Texas) who do drawings of dc comic book characters?
Spellcaster Deck

Monsters (24):
1x Magician's Valkyria
LIGHT. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. Your opponent cannot select another Spellcaster-Type monster you control as an attack target. ATK/1600 DEF/1800. Idea/Strategy/Tip: If you/I had another one in my/the deck I could figure out a way to summon/get both on the field at the same time and my/the opponent couldn't attack.
1x Defender, The Magical Knight
LIGHT. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. When this card is Normal Summoned, place 1 Spell Counter on it (max. 1). Once per turn, if a face-up Spellcaster-Type monster(s) on the field would be destroyed, you can remove 1 Spell Counter from a card you control for each of those monsters instead.
1x Mythical Beast Cerberus
LIGHT. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. Each time a Spell Card is activated, place 1 Spell Counter on this card. This card gains 500 ATK for each Spell Counter on it. If this card attacks or is attacked, remove all Spell Counters from it at the end of the Battle Phase.
1x Endymion, The Master Magician
DARK. Level 7. [Spellcaster/Effect]. You can Special Summoned this card from your hand or Graveyard by removing 6 Spell Counters from a "Magical Citadel of Endymion" you control. When you do, add 1 Spell Card from your Graveyard to your hand. Once per turn, you can discard 1 Spell Card to destroy 1 card on the field.
1x Gravekeeper's Descendant
DARK. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. You can tribute 1 face-up "Gravekeeper's" monster you control, except this card, to destroy 1 card your opponent controls. ATK/1500 DEF/1200.
2x Blast Magician
FIRE. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. Each time a Spell Card is activated, place 1 Spell Counter on this card. You can remove any number of Spell Counters from this card to destroy 1 face-up monster on the field with ATK equal to or less than 700 x the number of counters you removed. ATK/1400 DEF/1700.
1x Apprentice Magician
DARK. Level 2. [Spellcaster/Effect]. When this card is Summoned, place 1 Spell Counter on a face-up card that you can place a Spell Counter on. When this card is destroyed by battle, you can Special Summon 1 Level 2 or lower Spellcaster-Type monster from your Deck in face-down Defense Position. ATK/400 DEF/800.
1x Morphing Jar
EARTH. Level 3. [Rock/Effect]. FLIP: Return all Monster Cards on the field to their respective Decks and shuffle them. You and your opponent then pick up cards until you both have the same number of Monster Cards (Level 4 or lower) that were returned to each Deck. Special Summon the monsters on the field in face-down Defense Position. Any other cards picked up are discarded to the Graveyard. ATK/800 DEF/700. Just found out it his not allowed in some duels.
1x Dark Valkyria
DARK. Level 4. [Fairy/Gemini]. This card is treated as a Normal Monster while face-up on the field or in the Graveyard. While this card is face-up on the field, you can Normal Summon it to have it be treated as an Effect Monster with this effect:
●One time only, you can place 1 Spell Counter on this card. This card gains 300 ATK for each Spell Counter on it. You can remove 1 Spell Counter from this card to destroy 1 monster on the field. ATK/1800 DEF/1050.
1x Breaker The Magical Warrior
DARK. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. When this card is Normal Summoned, place 1 Spell Counter on it (max. 1). This card gains 300 ATK for each Spell Counter on it. You can remove 1 Spell Counter from this card to destroy 1 Spell or Trap Card on the field. ATK/1600 DEF/1000.
1x Magical Exemplar
EARTH. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. Each time a Spell Card is activated, place 2 Spell Counters on this card. Once per turn, you can remove any number of Spell Counters from this card to Special Summon a Spellcaster-Type monster from your hand or Graveyard whose Level is equal to the number of Spell Counters you removed. ATK/1700 DEF/1400.
1x Legendary Flame Lord
FIRE. Level 7. [Spellcaster/Ritual/Effect]. This card can only be Ritual Summoned with the Ritual Spell Card, "Incandescent Ordeal". You must also offer monsters whose total Level Stars equal 7 or more as a Tribute from the field or your hand. Each time you or your opponent activates 1 Spell Card, put 1 Spell Counter on this card. Remove 3 Spell Counters from this card to destroy all monsters on the field except this card. ATK/2400 DEF/2000.
1x Chaos Sorcerer
DARK. Level 6. [Spellcaster/Effect]. This card cannot be Normal Summoned or Set. This card can only be Special Summoned by removing from play 1 LIGHT and 1 DARK monster in your Graveyard. Once per turn during your Main Phase, you can remove 1 face-up monster on the field from play. If you activate this effect, this card cannot attack during this turn. ATK/2300 DEF/2000.
3x Royal Magical Library
LIGHT. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. Each time you or your opponent activates 1 Spell Card, put 1 Spell Counter on this card (max. 3). By removing 3 Spell Counters from this card, draw 1 card from your Deck. ATK/0 DEF/2000
1x Gravekeeper's Spear Soldier
DARK. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. During battle between this attacking card and a Defense Position monster whose DEF is lower than the ATK of this card, inflict the difference as Battle Damage to your opponent. ATK/1500 DEF/1000.
1x Millennium Shield
EARTH. Level 5. [Warrior]. A Millennium Shield item, it's rumored to block any strong attack. ATK/0 DEF/ 3000.
1x Big Shield Gardna
EARTH. Level 4. [Warrior/Effect]. During either player's turn, when this face-down card (and no other cards) is targeted by a Spell Card: Change this card to face-up Defense Position, and if you do, negate the Spell Card's activation. If this card is attacked, change it to Attack Position at the end of the Damage Step. ATK/100 DEF/2600.
1x Skilled Dark Magician
DARK. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. Each time you or your opponent activates 1 Spell Card, put 1 Spell Counter on this card (max. 3). By Tributing this card with 3 Spell Counters on it, Special Summon 1 "Dark Magician" from your hand, Deck, or Graveyard. ATK/1900 DEF/1700.
1x Dark Magician
DARK. Level 7. [Spellcaster]. The ultimate wizard in terms of attack and defense. ATK/2500 DEF/2100.
1x Dark Eradicator Warlock
DARK. Level 7. [Spellcaster/Effect]. This cannot be Normal Summoned or Set. This card cannot be Special Summoned except by Tributing 1 "Dark Magician" on your side of the field. While this card is face-up on the field. Inflict 1000 points of damage to your opponent's Life Points each time either player activates 1 Normal Spell Card. ATK/2500 DEF/2100.
1x Witch of the Black Forest
DARK. Level 4. [Spellcaster/Effect]. When this card is sent from the field to the Graveyard, move 1 monster with a DEF of 1500 or less from your Deck to your hand. Your Deck is then shuffled. ATK/1100 DEF/1200. Not allowed in some duels.

Magic (2):
1x Book of Moon
Magic. [Magic Card - Quick-Play Magic]. Flip 1 face-up monster on the field into face-down Defense Position. Only 1 allowed in some duels.
1x Double Snare
Magic. [Magic Card]. Select 1 face-up card on the field that has the effect that negates Trap Cards' effects and destroy it.

Traps (7):
1x Jar of Greed
Trap. [Trap Card]. Draw 1 card from your Deck.
1x Miracle Restoring
Trap. [Trap Card]. Remove 2 Spell Counters on your side of the field. Special Summon 1 "Dark Magician" or "Buster Blader" from your Graveyard in face-up Attack or Defense Position.
1x Pitch-Black Power Stone
Trap. [Trap Card - Continuous Trap]. After activation, place 3 Spell Counters on this card. During each of your turns you can move 1 Spell Counter from this card to another face-up card that you can place a Spell Counter on. When there are no Spell Counters on this card, destroy it.
1x Spellbinding Circle
Trap. [Trap Card - Continuous Trap]. Select 1 monster. As long as this card remains face-up on the field, the selected monster cannot attack or change it's battle position. When the selected monster is destroyed, this card is also destroyed.
1x Magician's Circle
Trap. [Trap Card]. Activate only when a Spellcaster-Type monster declares an attack. Each player Special Summons 1 Spellcaster-Type monster with 2000 or less ATK from their Deck in face-up Attack Position.
1x Magic Cylinder
Trap. [Trap Card]. Negate the attack of 1 of your opponent's monsters and inflict damage equal to to the attacking monster's ATK to your opponent's Life Points.
1x Anti-Spell
Trap. [Trap Card - Counter-Trap]. Remove 2 Spell Counters on your side of the field. Negate the activation of a Spell Card and destroy it.

Spells (17):
2x Spell Power Grasp
Spell. [Spell Card]. Place 1 Spell Counter on a face-up card that you can place a Spell Counter on. Then you can add 1 "Spell Power Grasp" from your Deck to your hand. You can only activate 1 "Spell Power Grasp " per turn.
1x Mythical Space Typhoon
Spell. [Spell Card - Quick-Play Spells]. Destroy 1 Spell or Trap Card on the field.
1x Terraforming
Spell. [Spell Card]. Add 1 Field Spell Card from your Deck to your hand.
1x Incandescent Ordeal
Spell. [Spell Card - Ritual Spells]. This card is used to Ritual Summon "Legendary Flame Lord". You must also offer monsters whose total Level Stars equal 7 or more as a Tribute from the field or your hand.
1x Monster Reincarnation
Spell. [Spell Card]. Discard 1 card. Add 1 Monster Card from your Graveyard to your hand.
1x Enemy Controller
Spell. [Spell Card - Quick-Play Spells]. Select and activate 1 of these effects:
●Change the Battle Position of 1 face-up monster your opponent controls.
●Tribute 1 monster. Select 1 face-up monster your opponent controls. Take control of it until the End Phase.
1x Two-Man Cell Battle
Spell. [Spell Card - Continuous Spells]. During each player's End Phase, each player can Special Summon 1 Level 4 Normal Monster from his/her hand.
1x Magical Dimension
Spell. [Spell Card - Quick-Play Spells]. Activate only while you control a Spellcaster-Type monster. Tribute 1 monster and Special Summon 1 Spellcaster-Type monster from your hand. Then, you can destroy 1 monster on the field.
1x Mystic Box
Spell. [Spell Card]. Select 1 monster on each side of the field. Destroy the selected opponent's monster and shift control of your selected monster to your opponent.
1x Magical Citadel of Endymion
Spell. [Spell Card - Field Spells]. Each time a Spell Card is activated, place 1 Spell Counter on this card. When a card with a Spell Counter(s) is destroyed, place its Spell Counters on this card. Once per turn, if you would activate a card's effect by removing a Spell Counter(s) from cards you control, you can remove Spell Counters from this card instead. If this card would be destroyed, you can remove 1 Spell Counter from this card instead.
1x Nobleman of Crossout
Spell. [Spell Card]. Destroy 1 face-down monster and remove it from play. If the monster is a Flip Effect Monster, both players must check their respective Decks and remove all monsters of the same name from play. Then shuffle the Decks.
1x Dark Hole.
Spell. [Spell Card]. Destroy all monsters on the field. Only two allowed in some duels.
1x Gold Sarcophagus
Spell. [Spell Card]. Select and remove from play 1 card in your Deck. During your second Standby Phase after this card's activation, add the removed card to your hand. Only 1 allowed in some duels.
1x Reload
Spell. [Spell Card - Quick-Play Spells]. Add your hand to your Deck and shuffle it. Then draw the same number of cards that you added to your Deck.
1x Swords of Revealing Light
Spell. [Spell Card]. Flip all face-down monsters on your opponent's side of the field face-up. This card remains face-up on the field for 3 of your opponent's turns. As long as this card remains face-up on the field, your opponent cannot declare an attack.
1x Arcane Barrier
Spell. [Spell Card - Continuous Spells]. Each time a Spellcaster-Type monster(s) on the field is destroyed, place 1 Spell Counter on this card (max. 4). You can send this card and 1 face-up Spellcaster-Type monster you control to the Graveyard to draw 1 card for each Spell Counter on this card.

Total Cards: 50.

Anything I should add, change, and/or delete. Any tips, strategies, and/or tactics.
My Yu-Gi-Oh Deck
Anything I should add, change, and/or delete. Any tips, strategies, and/or tactics.

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Caching is the process of hiding equipment or materials in a secure storage place with the view to future recovery for operational use. The ultimate success of caching may well depend upon attention to detail, that is, professional competence that may seem of minor importance to the untrained eye.

Security factors, such as cover for the caching party, sterility of the items cached, and removal of even the slightest trace of the caching operations are vital. Highly important, too, are the technical factors that govern the preservation of the items in usable condition and the recording of data essential for recovery. Successful caching entails careful adherence to the basic principles of clandestine operations, as well as familiarity with the technicalities of caching.

Section 1
Caching Considerations

Caching considerations that are vital to the success of the caching operation may be done in a variety of operational situations. For example, cached supplies can meet the emergency needs of personnel who may be barred from their normal supply sources by sudden developments or who may need travel documents and extra funds for quick escape.

Caching can help solve the supply problems of long-term operations conducted far from a secure base. Caching also can provide for anticipated needs of wartime operations in areas likely to be overrun by the enemy.


Caching involves selecting items to be cached, procuring those items, and selecting a cache site. Selection of the items to be cached requires a close estimate of what will be needed by particular units for particular operations. Procurement of the items usually presents no special problems. In fact, the relative ease of procurement before an emergency arises is one of the prime considerations in favor of caching. When selecting a cache site, planners should always ensure that the site is accessible not only for emplacement, but also for recovery. When planning a caching operation, the planner must consider seven basic factors.

1. Purpose and Contents of the Cache

Planners must determine the purpose and contents of each cache because theses basic factors influence the location of the cache, as well as the method of hiding. For instance, small barter items can be cached at any accessible and secure site because they can be concealed easily on the person once recovered.

However, it would be difficult to conceal rifles for a Guerrilla Band once recovered. Therefor, this site must be in an isolated area where the band can establish at least temporary control. Certain items, such as medical stock, have limited shelf life and require rotation periodically or special storage considerations, necessitating easy access to service these items. Sometimes it is impossible to locate a cache in the most convenient place for an intended user. Planners must compromise between logistical objectives and actual possibilities when selecting a cache site. Security is always the overriding consideration.

2. Anticipated Enemy Action

In planning the caching operation, planners must consider the capabilities of any intelligence or security services not participating in the operation. They should also consider the potential hazards the enemy and its witting or unwitting accomplice s present. If caching is done for wartime operational purposes, its ultimate success will depend largely on whether the planners anticipate the various obstacles to recovery, which the enemy and its accomplices will create if the enemy occupies the area.

What are the possibilities that the enemy will preempt an ideal site for one reason or another and deny access to it? A vacant field surrounded by brush may seem ideal for a particular cache because it is near several highways. But such a location may also invite the enemy to locate an ordnance depot where the cache is buried.

3. Activities of the local Population

Probably more dangerous than deliberate enemy action are all of the chance circumstances that may result in the discovery of the cache. Normal activity, such as construction of a new building, may uncover the cache site or impede access to it. Bad luck cannot be anticipated, but it can probably be avoided by careful and imaginative observation of the prospective cache site and of the people who live near the site.

If the cache is intended for wartime use, the planners must project how the residents will react to the pressures of war and conquest. For example, one of the more likely reactions is that many residents may resort to caching to avoid having their personal funds and valuables seized by the enemy. If caching becomes popular, any likely cache site will receive more than normal attention.

4. Intended Actions by Allied Forces

Using one cache site for several clandestine operations involves a risk of mutual compromise. Therefore, some planners should rule out otherwise suitable caching sites if they have been selected for other clandestine purposes, such as drops or safe houses. A site should not be located where it may be destroyed or rendered inaccessible by bombing or other allied military action, should the area be occupied by the enemy.

For example, installations likely to be objects of special protective efforts by the occupying enemy are certain to be inaccessible to the ordinary citizen. Therefore, if the cache is intended for wartime use, the caching party should avoid areas such as those near key bridges, railroad intersections, power plants, and munitions factories.

5. Packaging and Transportation Assets

Planners should assess the security needs and all of the potential obstacles and hazards that a prospective cache site can present. They should also consider whether the operational assets that could be used for packaging and transporting the package to the site. Best results are obtained when the packaging is done by experts at a packaging center.

The first question, therefor, is to decide whether the package can be transported from the headquarters or the field packaging center to the cache site securely and soon enough to meet the operational schedules. If not, the packaging must be done locally, perhaps in a safe house located within a few miles of the cache site. If such an arrangement is necessary, the choice of cache sites may be restricted by limited safe house possibilities.

6. Personal Assets

All who participate directly in emplacement will know where the cache is located. Therefore, only the fewest possible and the most reliable persons should be used. Planners must consider the distance from the person’s residence to the prospective c ache site and what action cover is required for the trip. Sometimes transportation's and cover difficulties require the cache site to be within a limited distance of the person’s residence. The above considerations also apply to the recovery personnel.

7. Caching Methods

Which cache method to use depends on the situation. It is therefore unsound to lay down any general rules, with one exception. Planners should always think in terms of suitability, for example, the method most suitable for each cache, considering its specific purpose; the actual situation in the particular locality; and the changes that may occur if the enemy gains control.


Concealment requires the use of permanent man-made or natural features to hide or disguises the cache. It has several advantages. Both employment and recovery usually and be done with minimum time and labor, and cached items concealed inside a building or dry cave are protected from the elements. Thus, they require less elaborate packaging. Also, in some cases, a concealed cache can be readily inspected from time to time to ensure that it is still usable.

However, there is always the chance of accidental discovery in addition to all the hazards of wartime that may result in discovery or destruction or a concealed cache or denial of access to the site. The concealment method, therefore, is most suitable in cases where an exceptionally secure site is available or where a need for quick access to the cache justifies a calculated sacrifice in security.

Concealment may range from securing small gold coins under a tile in the floor to walling up artillery in caves.


Adequate burial sites can be found almost anywhere. Once in place, a properly buried cache is generally the best way of achieving lasting security. In contrast to concealment, however, burial in the ground is a laborious and time-consuming method of caching.

The disadvantages of burial are that-

Burial almost always requires a high-quality container or special wrapping to protect the cache from moisture, chemicals and bacteria in the soil.
Emplacement or recovery of a buried cache usually takes so long that the operation must be done after dark unless the site is exceptionally secluded.
It is especially difficult to identify and locate a buried cache.

Submersion sites that are suitable for secure concealment of a submerged cache are few and far between. Also, the container of a submerged cache must meet such high standards for waterproofing and resistance to external pressure that the use of field expedients is seldom workable. To ensure that a submerged cache remains dry and in place, planners must determine not only the depth of the water, but the type of bottom, the currents, and other facts that are relatively difficult for nonspecialists to obtain. Emplacement, likewise requires a high degree of skill. At least two persons are needed for both emplacement and requires additional equipment. In view of the difficulties – especially the difficulty of recovery – the submersion method is suitable only on rare occasions. The most noteworthy usage is the relatively rare maritime re-supply operation where it is impossible to deliver supplies directly to a reception committee. Caching supplies offshore by submersion i s often preferable to sending a landing party ashore to bury a cache.


The most careful estimates of future operational conditions cannot ensure that a will cache will be accessible when it is needed. However, criteria for a site selection can be met when three questions are answered.

Criteria for Site Selection

Can the site be located by simple instructions that are unmistakably clear to someone who has never visited the location? A site may be ideal in every respect, but if it has no distinct, permanent landmarks within a readily measurable distance it must be ruled out. Are there at least two secure routes to and from the site? Both primary and alternate routes should provide natural concealment so that the emplacement party and the recovery party can visit the site without being seen by anyone normally in the vicinity. An alienate escape route offers hope of avoiding detection and recovered at the chosen site in all seasons? Snow and frozen ground create special problems.

Snow on the ground is a hazard because it is impossible to erase a trail in the snow. Planners must consider whether seasonal changes in the foliage will leave the site and the dangerously exposed.

The Map Survey

Finding a cache site is often difficult. Usually, a thorough systematic survey of the general area designated for the cache is required. The survey is best done with as large-scale map of the area as is available. By scrutinizing the map, the planners can determine whether a particular sector must be ruled out because of its nearness to factories, homes, busy thoroughfares, or probable military targets in wartime.

A good military-type map will show the positive features in the topography; proximity to adequate roads or trails, natural concealment (for example: surrounding woods or groves), and adequate drainage. A map also will show the natural and man-made features in the landscape. It will provide the indispensable reference points for locating a cache site: confluences of streams, dams and waterfalls, road junctures and distance markers, villages, bridges, churches, and cemeteries.

The Personal Reconnaissance

A map survey normally should show the location of several promising sites within the general area designated for the cache. To select and pinpoint the best site, however, a well-qualified observer must examine each site firsthand. If possible, whoever examines the site should carry adequate maps, a compass, a drawing pad or board for making sketch maps or tracings, and a metallic measuring line. (A wire knotted at regular intervals is adequate for measuring. Twine or cloth measuring tapes should not be used because stretching or shrinking will make them inaccurate if they get wet.)

The observer should also carry a probe rod for probing prospective burial sites, if the rod can be carried securely. Since the observer seldom completes a field survey without being noticed by local residents, his action cover is of great importance. His cover must offer a natural explanation for his exploratory activity in the area. Ordinarily, this means that a n observer who is not a known resident of the area can pose as a tourist or a newcomer with some reason for visiting the area. However, his action cover must be developed over an extended period before he undertakes the actual reconnaissance.

If the observer is a known resident of the area, he cannot suddenly take up hunting, fishing, or wildlife photography without arousing interest and perhaps suspicion. But he must build up a reputation for being a devotee of his sport or hobby.

Reference Points

When the observer finds a suitable cache site, he prepares simple and unmistakable instructions for locating the reference points. These instructions must identify the general area (the names of general recognizable places, from the country down to the nearest village) and an immediate reference point. Any durable landmark that is identified by its title or simple description can be immediate reference point (for example, the only Roman Catholic church in a certain village or the only bridge o n a named road between two villages).

The instructions must also include a final reference point (FRP), which must meet four requirements:

(1) It must be identifiable, including at least one feature that can be used as a precise reference point.

(2) It must be an object that will remain fixed as long as the cache may be used.

(3) It must be near enough to the cache to pinpoint the exact location of the cache by precise linear measurements from the FRP to the cache

(4) It should be related to the immediate reference point by a simple route description, which proceeds from the immediate reference point to the FRP

Since the route description should be reduced to the minimum essential, the ideal solution for locating the cache is to combine the immediate reference point and the FRP into one landmark readily identifiable, but sufficiently secluded. The following objects, when available, are sometimes ideal reference points: small, unfrequented bridges, and dams, boundary markers, kilometer markers and culverts along unfrequented roads, a geodetic survey marker, battle monuments, and wayside shrines. When such reference points are not available at an otherwise suitable cache site, natural or man-made objects may serve as FRP’s: distinct rocks, posts for power or telephone lines, intersections in stone fences or hedgerows, and gravestones in isolated cemeteries.

Pinpointing Techniques

Recovery instructions must identify the exact location of the cache. These instructions must describe the point where the cache is placed in terms that relate in to the FRP. When the concealment method is used, the cache ordinarily is placed inside the FRP, so it is pinpointed by a precise description of the FRP. A submerged cache usually is pinpointed by describing exactly how the moorings are attached to the FRP. With a buried cache, any of the following techniques may be used.

Placing the cache directly beside the FRP:

The simple's method is to place the cache directly beside the FRP. Then pinpointing is reduced to specifying the precise reference point of the FRP. Sighting the cache by projection, This method may be used if the FRP has one flat side long enough to permit precise sighting by projecting a line along the side of the object. The burial party places the cache a measured distance along the sighted line. This method may also be used if two precise FRP’s are available, by projecting a line sighed between the two objects. In either case, the instructions for finding the cache must state the approximate direction of the cache from the FRP. Since small errors in sighting are magnified as the sighted line is extended, the cache should be placed as close to the FRP as other factors permit. Ordinarily this method becomes unreliable if the sighted line is extended beyond 50 meters.

Placing the cache at the intersection of measured lines:

If two FRP’s are available within several paces, the cache can be one line projected from each of the FRP’s. If this method is used, state the approximate direction of the cache from each FRP . To ensure accuracy, neither of the projected lines (from the FRP’s to the point of emplacement) should be more than twice as long as the base line (between the two FRP’s). If this proportion is maintained, the only limitation upon the length of t he projected lines is the length of the measuring line that the recovery party is expected to carry. The recovery party should carry two measuring lines when this method is used.

Sighting the cache by compass azimuth:

If the above methods of sighting are not feasible, one measured line may be projected by taking a compass azimuth from the FRP to the point where the cache is placed. To avoid confusion, use an azimuth to a cardinal point of the compass (north, east, south, or west).

Since compass sightings are likely to be inaccurate, a cache that is pinpointed by this method should not be placed more than 10 meters from the FRP. Measuring Distances

The observer should express all measured distances in a linear system that the recovery party is sure to understand – ordinarily the standard system for the country where the cache is located. He should use whole numbers (6 meters, not 6.3 or 6.5, etc.) to keep his instructions as brief and as simple as possible. To get an exact location for the cache in whole numbers, take sightings and measurements first.

If the surface of the ground between the points to be measured is uneven, the linear distance should be measured on a direct line from point to point, rather than by following the contour of the ground. This method requires a measuring line long enough to reach the full distance from point to point and enough to be pulled taut without breaking.

Marking Techniques

The emplacement operation can be simplified and critical time saved if the point where the cache is to be buried is marked during the reconnaissance. If a night burial is planned, the point of emplacement may have to be marked during a daylight reconnaissance. This method should be used whenever operational conditions permit. The marker must be an object that is easily recognizable but that is meaningless to an unwitting observer. For example, a small rock or a branch with its butt placed at the point selected for the emplacement may be used.

During a personal reconnaissance, the observer must not only pinpoint the cache site, but also gather all the incidental information required for planning the emplacement operation. It is especially important to determine the best route to the site and at least one alternate route, the security hazards along these routes, and any information that can be used to overcome the hazards.

Since this information is also essential to the recovery operation, it must be compiled after emplacement and included in the final cache report. Therefore, the observer should be thoroughly familiar with the Twelve-Point Cache Report before he starts a personal reconnaissance. This report is a checklist for the observer to record as much information as possible. Points 6 through 11 are particularly important. The personal reconnaissance also provides an excellent opportunity for a preliminary estimate of the time required for getting to the site.

The Alternate Site

As a general rule, planners should select an alternate site in case unforeseen difficulties prevent use of the best site. Unless the primary site is in a completely deserted area, there is always some danger that the emplacement party will find it occupied as they approach, or that the party will be observed as they near the site. The alternate site should be far enough away to be screened from view from the primary site, but near enough so that the party can reach it without making a second t rip.

The Concealment Site

A site that looks ideal for concealment may be revealed to the enemy for that very reason. Such a site may be equally attractive to a native of an occupied country to hide his valuables. The only real key to the ideal concealment site is careful ca sing of the area combined with great familiarity with local residents and their customs.

The following is a list of likely concealment sites:

Natural caves and caverns, and abandoned mines and quarries.
Walls (hidden behind loose bricks or stones or hidden a plastered surface).
Abandoned buildings.
Infrequently used structures (stadiums and other recreational facilities, and railroad facilities on spur lines).
Memorial edifices (mausoleums, crypts, monuments).
Public buildings (museums, churches, libraries).
Ruins of historical interest.
Cable conduits.
The concealment site must be equally accessible to the person emplacing and the person recovering. However, visits by both persons to certain interior sites may be incompatible with the cover. For instance, a site in a house owned by a relative of the emplacer may be unsuitable because there is no adequate excuse for the recovery person to enter the house if he has no connection with the owner.

The site must remain accessible as long as the cache is needed. If access to a building depends upon a personal relationship with the owner, the death of the owner or the sale of the property might render it inaccessible. Persons involved in the operation should not be compromised if the cache is discovered on the site. Even if a cache is completely sterile, as every cache should be, the mere fact that it has been placed in a particular site may compromise certain persons.

If the cache were discovered by the police, they might suspect the emplacer because it was found in his relative’s house. The site must not be located where potentially hostile persons frequently visit. For instance, a site in a museum is not secure if police guards or curious visitors frequently enter the museum.

To preserve the cache material, the emplacer must ensure the site is physically secure for the preservation of the cached material. For example, most buildings involve a risk that the cache may be destroyed or damaged by fire, especially in wartime. The emplacer should consider all risks and weigh them against the advantages of an interior site. A custodian may serve to ease access to a building or to guard a cache. However, the use of such a person is inadvisable, as a custodian poses an additional security risk. He may use the contents of the cache for personal profit or reveal its location.

The Burial Site

In selecting a burial site, consider the following factors along with the basic considerations of suitability and accessibility:


This includes the elevation of the site and the type of soil. The importance of good drainage makes a site on high ground preferable unless other factors rule it out. Moisture is one of the greatest natural threats to the contents of a cache.

Swamp muck is the most difficult soil to work in. If the site is near a stream or river, ensure that the cache is well above the all-year-high-water mark so that it will not be uncovered if the soil is washed away.

Ground Cover

The types of vegetation at the site will influence the choice. Roots of deciduous tress make digging very difficult. Coniferous trees have less extensive root systems. Also, the presence of coniferous trees usually means that the site is well drained. Does the vegetation show paths or other indications that the site is frequented too much for secure caching? Can the ground cover be easily restored to its normal appearance when burial is completed? Tall grass reveals that it has been trampled, while an overlay of leaves and humus can be replaced easily and will effectively conceal a freshly refilled hole.

Natural Concealment

The vegetation or the surrounding terrain should offer natural concealment for the burial and recovery parties working at the site. Planners should carefully consider seasonal variations in the foliage.

Types of Soil

Sandy loam is ideal because it is easy to dig and drains well. Clay soil should be avoided because it becomes quite sticky in wet weather and in dry weather it may become so hard that it is almost impossible to dig.

Snowfall and Freezing

If the cache must be buried or recovered in winter, data on the normal snowfall, the depth to which the ground freezes in winter, and the usual dates of freezing and thawing will influence the choice of the site. Frozen ground impedes digging and requires additional time for burial and recovery. Snow on the ground is especially hazardous for the burial operation. It is practically impossible to restore the snow over the burial site to its normal appearance unless there is more snowfall or a b risk wind. Also, it is very difficult to ensure that no traces of the operation are left after the snow has melted.

Rocks and Other Subsurface Obstructions

Large obstructions that might prevent use of a particular site can be located to some extent before digging by probing with a rod or stake at the exact spot selected for the cache.

The Submersion Site

To be suitable for a submerged cache, a body of water must have certain characteristics. The presence of these characteristics can be determined only by a thorough survey of the site. Their importance will be understood after familiarization with t he technicalities of submersion as discussed in Section 3, Emplacement. Submersion usually requires a boat, first for reconnoitering, then for emplacement. Thus, the accessibility problems involved in submersion usually narrow down to the availability of a boat and the action cover for using it. If there is no fishing or pleasure boating at the site the cover for this peculiar type boating may be a real problem.

In tropical areas the course of streams or rivers is frequently changed by seasonal rainfall and can cause many problems. Keep this fact in mind when choosing the site and when selecting reference points.


Since the method for recovering a cache is generally similar to that for emplacing (Section 3) a cache, it need not be described in full. However, several important considerations should be stressed in training for a recovery operation.

Practical Exercises

Anyone who is expected to serve as a recovery person should have the experience of actually recovering dummy caches, if field exercises can be arranged securely. It is especially desirable for the recovery person to be able to master the pinpointing techniques. Mastery is best attained by practice in selecting points of emplacement and in drafting, as well as in following instructions.


Although the equipment used in recovery is generally the same as that used in emplacement, it is important to include any additional items that may be required in recovery in the cache report. A probe rod may not be essential for emplacement, but it is necessary to have some object roughly the same size as the cache container to fill the cavity left in the ground by removal of a buried cache. Some sort of container of wrapping material may be needed to conceal the recovered cache while it is being carried from the cache site to a safe house. Recovery of a submerged cache may require grappling lines and hooks, especially if it is heavy.

Sketch of the site

If possible, the observer should provide the recovery person with sketches of the cache site and the route to the cache site. If the recovery person must rely exclusively on verbal instructions, as in the case when communications are limited to radio telephone (RT) messages, he should draw a sketch of the site before starting on the recovery operation. He should use all the data in the verbal instructions to make the sketch as realistic as possible. Drawing a sketch will help to clarify any misunderstanding of the instructions. Also, a sketch can be followed more easily than verbal instructions. It may also be helpful for the recovery person to draw a sketch of the route from the immediate reference point to the site. But he should no t carry this sketch on him because if he were apprehended the sketch might direct the enemy to the cache.

Preliminary Reconnaissance

Checking the instructions for locating the cache may be advisable, especially when the recovery operation must be performed under stringent enemy controls or when there is no extra time for searching. Careful analysis of the best available map can minimize reconnoitering activity in the vicinity of the cache and thus reduce the danger of arousing suspicion. If recovery must be done at night, the recovery person should find the cache by daylight and place an unnoticeable marker directly over it.

Probe Rod

The recovery person can avoid digging at the wrong spot by using a probe rod before starting to dig. He should push and turn the probe rod into the ground by hand, so that it will not puncture the cache’s container. Never pound the probe rod with a hammer.

Procedure for Digging and Refilling the Hole

The recovery procedure is the same as for the burial, except for two points. First, never use a pick for digging the hole because it might puncture the container and damage the cached items. Second, it may be necessary to fill the hole with other objects in addition to soil after the cache is removed.

Sometimes it is possible to fill the hole with rocks, sticks, or other readily available objects at the site. If no such objects are found during the preliminary reconnaissance, the recovery person should carry to the site an object roughly the same size as the cache container.

Sterilization of the Site

As with emplacement, the recovery operation must be preformed in such a way that no traces of the operation are left. Although sterilization is not as important for recovery as for emplacement, it should be done as thoroughly as time permits. Evidence that a cache has been recovered might alert the enemy to clandestine activity in the area and provoke countermeasures.

Section 2.

Packaging usually involves packing the items to be cached, as well as the additional processing in protecting these items from adverse storage conditions. Proper packaging is important because inadequate packaging very likely will render the items unusable. Since special equipment and skilled technicians are needed for best results, packaging should be done at headquarters or a field packaging center whenever possible. However, to familiarize operational personnel with the fundamentals of packaging, so that they can improvise field expedients for emergency use, thus section discusses determining factors, steps in packaging, wrapping materials, and criteria for the container.

Determining factors.

The first rule of packaging is that all processing is tailored to fit the specific requirements of each cache. The method of packaging, as well as the size, shape, and weight of the package is determined by the items to be cached, by the method of caching, and, especially, by the way the cache is recovered and used. For instance, if circumstances require one man to recover the cache by himself, the container should be no larger than a small suitcase, and the total weight of container and contents no more than 30 pounds. Of course, these limits must be exceeded with some equipment, but the need for larger packages should be weighed against the difficulties and risks in handling them. Even if more than one person is available for recovery, the material should be divided whenever possible into separate packages of a size and weight readily portable by one man.

Another very important factor in packaging concerns adverse storage conditions. Any or all of the following conditions may be present: moisture, external pressure, freezing temperatures, and the bacteria and corrosive chemicals found in some soil an d water. Animal life may present a hazard; insects and rodents may attack the package. If the cache is concealed in a exterior site, larger animals also may threaten it. Whether the packaging is adequate usually depends upon how carefully the conditions at the site were analyzed in designing the cache. Thus, the method of caching (burial, concealment, or submersion) should be determined before the packaging is done.

It is equally important to consider how long the cache is to be used. Since one seldom knows when a cache will be needed, a sound rule is to design the packaging to withstand adverse storage conditions for at least as long as the normal shelf life of the contents to be cached.


The exact procedure for packaging depends upon the specific requirements for the cache and upon the packaging equipment available. There are Nine Steps that are almost always necessary in packaging.


The items to be cached must be inspected immediately before packaging to ensure they are complete, in serviceable condition, and free of all corrosive or contamination substances.


All corrodible items must be cleaned thoroughly immediately before the final preservative coating is applied. All foreign matter, including any preservative applied before the item was shipped to the field, should be removed completely. Throughout the packaging operation, all contents of the cache should be handled with rubber or freshly cleaned cotton cloves. Special handling is important because even minute particles of human sweat will corrode metallic equipment. Also, any fingerprints on the contents of the cache may enable the enemy to identify those who did the packaging.


When cleaning is completed, every trace of moisture must be removed from all corrodible items. Methods of drying include: wiping with a highly absorbent cloth, heating or applying desiccant. Usually heating is best, unless the item can be damaged by heat. To dry by heating, the item to be cached should be placed in an oven for at least 3 hours at a temperature of about 110’F. An oven can be improvised from a large metal can or drum. In humid climates, it is especially important to dry the oven thoroughly before using it by preheating it to at least 212’F. Then, insert the equipment to be cached as soon as the over cools down to about 110’F. If a desiccant is used, it should not touch any metallic surface. Silica gel is a satisfactory desiccant, and it is commonly available.

Coating With a Preservative

Apply a light coat of oil to weapons, tools, and other items with unpainted metallic surfaces. A coat of paint may suffice for other metal items.


When drying and coating are completed, wrap the items to be cached in a suitable material (see paragraph below on Wrapping Materials.) The wrapping should be as nearly waterproof as possible. Each item should be wrapped separately, so that one perforation in the wrapping will not expose all items in the cache. The wrapping should fit tightly to each item to eliminate air pockets, and all folds should be sealed with a waterproof substance.


Several simple rules must be observed when packing items in the container. All moisture must be removed from the interior of the container by heating or applying desiccant. A long-lasting desiccant should be packed inside the container to absorb an y residual moisture. If silica gel is used, the required amount can be calculated by using the ratio of 15 kilograms of silica gel to 1 cubic meter of storage space within the container. (This figure is based on two assumptions: the container is completely moisture proof and the contents are slightly moist when inserted.) Therefore, the ratio allows an ample margin for incomplete drying and can be reduced if the drying process is known to be highly effective.

Air pockets should be eliminated as much as possible by tight packing. Thoroughly dried padding should be used liberally to fill air pockets and to protect the contents from shock. Clothing and other items, which will be useful to the recovery party, should be used for padding if possible. Items made of different metals should never touch, since continued contact may cause corrosion through electrolytic action.

Enclosing Instructions for Use of Cached Equipment

Written instructions and diagrams should be included if they facilitate assembly or use of the cached items. Instructions must be written in a language that recovery personnel can understand. The wording should be as simple as possible and unmistakably clear. Diagrams should be self-explanatory since the eventual user may not be able to comprehend written instructions because of language barriers.

Sealing & Testing Seals by Submersion

When packing is completed, the lid of the container must be sealed to make it watertight. Testing can be done by entirely submerging the container in water and watching for escaping air bubbles. Hot water should be used if possible because hot water will bring out leaks that would not be revealed by a cold water test.


The most important requirement for wrapping material is that it be moisture proof. Also, it should be self-sealing or adhesive to a sealing material; it should be pliable enough to fit closely, with tight folds; and it should be tough enough to resist tearing and puncturing. Pliability and toughness may be combined by using two wrappings: an inner one that is thin and pliable and an outer one of heavier material. A tough outer wrapping is essential unless the container and the padding are adequate to prevent items from scraping together inside the cache. Five wrapping materials are recommended for field expedients because they often can be obtained locally and used effectively be unskilled personnel.

Aluminum Foil

For use as an inner wrapping. aluminum foil is the best of the widely available materials. It is moisture proof as long as it does not become perforated and provided the folds are adequately sealed. The drawbacks to its use for caching are that the thin foils perforate easily, while the heavy ones (over 2 mils thick) tend to admit moisture through the folds. The heavy-duty grade of aluminum foil generally sold for kitchen use is adequate when used with an outer wrapping. Scrim-backed foil, which is heat-sealable, is widely used commercially to package articles for shipment or storage. Portable heat-sealers that are easy to use are available commercially. Or, sealing can be done with a standard household iron.

Moisture-Resistant Papers

Several brands of commercial wrapping papers are resistant to water and grease. They do not provide lasting protection against moisture when used alone, but they are effective as an inner wrapping to prevent rubber, wax and similar substances from s ticking to the items in the cache.

Rubber Repair Gum

This is a self-sealing compound generally used for repairing tires; it makes an excellent outer wrapping. Standard commercial brands come in several thicknesses; 2 mils is the most satisfactory for caching. A watertight seal is produced easily by placing two rubber surfaces together and applying pressure manually. The seal should be at least 1/2 inch wide. Since rubber repair gum has a tendency to adhere to items, an inner wrapping of non-adhesive material must be used with it, and the backing should be left on the rubber material to keep it from sticking to other items in the cache.

Grade C Barrier Material

This is a cloth impregnated with microcrystalline wax that is used extensively when packing for storage of for overseas shipment. Thus, it is generally available, and it has the additional advantage of being self-sealing. Although it is not as effective as rubber repair gum, it may be used as an outer wrapping over aluminum foil to prevent perforation of the foil.

Used without an inner wrapping, three layers of grade C barrier material may keep the contents dry for as long as three months, but it is highly vulnerable to insects and rodents. Also, the wax wrapping has a low melting point and will adhere to many items, so it should not be used without an inner wrapping except in emergencies.

Wax Coating

If no wrapping material is available, an outer coating of microcrystalline wax, paraffin or a similar waxy substance can be used to protect the contents against moisture. It will not provide protection against insects and rodents. The package should be hot-dipped in the waxy substance, or the wax can heated to molten form and applied with a brush.


The outer container serves to protect the contents from shock, moisture and other natural hazards to which the cache may be exposed to.

Criteria for the Container

The ideal container should be:

Completely watertight and airtight after sealing.
Noiseless when handled and its handles should not rattle against the body of the container
Resistant to shock and abrasion.
Able to withstand crushing pressure.
Lightweight in construction.
Able to withstand rodents, insects, and bacteria.
Equipped with a sealing device that can be closed and reopened easily and repeatedly.
Capable of withstanding highly acidic or alkaline soil or water.
The Standard Stainless Steel Container

The standard stainless steel container comes in several sizes. Since the stainless steel container is more satisfactory than any that could be improvised in the field, it should be used whenever possible. Ideally, it should be packed at headquarter s or at a field packaging center. If the items to be cached must be obtained locally, it is still advisable to use the stainless steel container because its high resistance to moisture eliminates the need for an outer wrapping. Packers should, however, use a single wrapping even with the stainless steel container to protect the contents from any residual moisture that may be present in the container when it is sealed.

The Field Expedient Container

Obviously the ideal container cannot be improvised in the field, but the standard military and commercial containers discussed below can meet caching requirements if they are adapted with care and resourcefulness. First, a container must be sufficiently sturdy to remain unpunctured and retain its shape through whatever rough handling or crushing pressure it may encounter. (Even a slight warping may cause a joint around the lid to leak.) Second, if the lid is not already watertight and airtight , packers can make it so by improvising a sealing device. The most common type of sealing device includes a rubber-composition gasket or lining and a sharp metal rim that is pressed against common sealing device is a threaded lid. Its effectiveness can be increased by applying heavy grease to the threads. (Metallic solder should not be used for sealing because it corrodes metal surfaces when exposed to moisture.) Whenever any non-stainless metal container is used, it is important to apply several coats of high-quality paint to all exterior surfaces.

Instrument Containers.

Ordinarily, aircraft and other precision instruments are shipped in steel containers with a waterproof sealing device. The standard instrument containers range from 1/2 gallon to 10 gallon sizes. If one of suitable size can be found, only minimum modifications may be needed, In the most common type of instrument container, the only weak point is the nut and bolt that tightens the locking band around the lid. These should be replaced with a stainless steel nut and bolt .

Ammunition Boxes.

Several types and sizes of steel ammunition boxes that have a rubber-gasket closing device are satisfactory for buried caches. An advantage of using ammunition boxes as a cache container, is that they are usually available at a military depot.

Steel Drums.

A caching container of suitable size may be found among the commercially used steel drums for shipping oil, grease, nails, soap, and other products. The most common types, however, lack an adequate sealing device, so a waterproof material should be used around the lid. Fully removable head drums with lock-ring closures generally give a satisfactory seal.

Glass Jars.

The advantage of using glass is that it is waterproof and does not allow chemicals, bacteria and insects to pass through it. Although glass is highly vulnerable to shock, glass jars of a sturdy quality can withstand the crushing pressure normally encountered in caching. However, none of the available glass container have an adequate sealing device for the joint around the lid. The standard commercial canning jar with a spring clamp and a rubber washer is watertight, but the metal clamp is vulnerable to corrosion. Therefore, a glass jar with a spring clamp and a rubber washer is an adequate expedient for short-term caching of small items, but it should not be relied upon to resist moisture for more than a year.

Paint Cans.

Standard cans with reusable lids require a waterproof adhesive around the lids. It is especially important to apply several coats of paint to the exterior of standard commercial cans because the metal in these cans is not as heavy as that in metal drums. Even when the exterior is thoroughly painted, paint cans probably will not resist moisture for more than a few months.

Section 3.
Methods of Emplacement

Since burial is the most frequently used method of emplacement, this section describes first the complete procedure for burial, followed by a discussion of emplacement procedures peculiar to submersion and concealment. The last area discussed is the preparation of the cache report-a vital part of a caching operation.


When planners have designed a cache and selected the items for caching, they must carefully work out every step of the burial operation in advance.

Horizontal and Vertical Caches

Ordinarily, the hole for a buried cache is vertical (the hole is dug straight down from the surface). Sometimes a horizontal cache, with the hole dug into the side of a steep hill or bank, provides a workable solution when a suitable site on level or slightly sloping ground is not available. A horizontal cache may provide better drainage in areas of heavy rainfall, but is more likely to be exposed by soil erosion and more difficult to refill and restore to normal appearance.

Dimensions of the Hole

The exact dimensions of the hole, either vertical or horizontal, depend on the size and shape of the cache container. As a general rule, ensures that the hole is large enough for the container to be inserted easily. The horizontal dimensions of the hole should be about 30 centimeters longer and wider than the container. Most importantly, it should be deep enough to permit covering the container with soil to about 45 centimeters. This figure is recommended for normal usage because a more shallow burial risks exposure of the cache through soil erosion or inadvertent uncovering by normal indigenous activity. A deeper hole makes probing for recovery more difficult and unnecessarily prolongs the time required for burial and recovery.

Excavation Shoring

If there is a risk that the surrounding soil will cave in during excavation, boards or bags filled with subsoil may be used to shore the sides of the hole. Permanent shoring may be needed to protect an improvised container from pressure or shock.


The following items of equipment may be helpful or indispensable in burying a cache, depending upon the conditions at the site:

Measuring instruments (a wire or metal tape and compass) for pinpointing the site.
Paper and pencil for recording the measurements.
A probe rod for locating rocks, large roots, or other obstacles in the subsoil.
Two ground sheets on which to place sod and loose soil. An article of clothing may be used for small excavation if nothing else is available.
Sacks (sandbags, flour sacks) for holding subsoil.
A spade or pickax, if the ground is too hard for spading.
A hatchet for cutting roots.
A crowbar for prying rocks.
A flashlight or lamp if burial is to be done at night.
The Burial Party

Aside from locating, digging, and refilling the hole, the most important factors in this part of the emplacement operation may be expressed with one word: Personnel.

Since it is almost impossible to prevent every member of the burial party from knowing the location of the cache, each member is a prime security problem as long as the cache remains intact. Thus, planners must keep the burial party as small as possible and select each member with utmost care. Once selected, each member must have adequate cover to explain his absence from home or work during the operation, his trip to and from the site, and his possession of whatever equipment cannot be concealed on the way.

Transportation for the burial party may be a problem, depending on the number of persons, how far they must go, and what equipment they must take. When planners have worked out all details of the operation, they must brief every member of the burial party on exactly what he is to do from start to finish.

The Operational Schedule

The final step in planning the emplacement operation is to make a schedule to set the date, time, and place for every step of the operation that requires advance coordination. The schedule will depend mainly on the circumstances, but to be practical it must include a realistic estimate of how long it will take to complete the burial. Here generalizations are worthless, and the only sure guide is actual experience under similar conditions. Planners should consider three things with respect to scheduling. A careful burial job probably will take longer than most novices will expect. Therefore, if circumstances require a tight schedule, a dry run or test exercise before taking the package to the site may be advisable.

Unless the site is exceptionally well concealed or isolated, night burial will be required to avoid detection. Because of the difficulties of working in the dark, a nighttime practice exercise is especially advisable. The schedule should permit waiting for advantageous weather conditions. The difficulties of snow have already been mentioned. Rainy weather increases the problems of digging and complicates the cover story. If the burial is to be done at night, a moonless or a heavy overcast night is desirable.

Site Approach

Regardless of how effective the cover of actions during the trip to the cache site, the immediate approach must be completely unobserved to avoid detection of the burial. To reduce the risk of the party being observed, planners must carefully select the point where the burial party disappears, perhaps by turning off a road into woods. They should as carefully select the reappearance point. In addition, the return trip should be by a different route. The burial party should strictly observe the rule for concealed movement. The party should proceed cautiously and silently along a route that makes the best use of natural concealment. Concealed movement requires foresight, with special attention to using natural concealment while reconnoitering the route and to preventing rattles when preparing the package and contents.

Security Measures at the Site

The burial party must maintain maximum vigilance at the caches site, since detection can be disastrous. The time spent at the site is the most critical. At least one lookout should be on guard constantly. If one man must do the burial by himself, he should pause frequently to look and listen. The burial party should use flashlight or lanterns as little as possible, and should take special care to mask the glare. Planning should include emergency actions in case the burial party is interrupt ed. The party should be so thoroughly briefed that it will respond instantly to any sign of danger. Planner should also consider the various escape routes and whether the party will attempt to retain the package or conceal it along the escape route .

Steps in Digging and Refilling

Although procedures will vary slightly with the design of the cache, persons involved in caching operations must never overlook certain basic steps. The whole procedure is designed to restore the site to normal as far as possible.

Site Sterilization

When the hole is refilled, make a special effort to ensure that the site is left sterile-restored to normal in every way, with no clues left to indicate burial or the burial party’s visit to the vicinity. Since sterilization is most important for the security of the operation, the schedule should allow ample time to complete these final steps in an unhurried, thorough manner.

Dispose of any excess soil far enough away from the site to avoid attracting attention to the site. Flushing the excess soil into a stream is the ideal solution. Check all tools and equipment against a checklist to ensure that nothing is left behind. This should include all personnel items that may drop from pockets. To keep this risk to a minimum, members of the burial party should carry nothing on their persons except the essentials for doing the job and covering their actions.

Make a final inspection of the site for any traces of the burial. Because this step is more difficult on a dark night, use of a carefully prepared checklist is essential. With a night burial, returning to the site in the daytime to inspect it for telltale evidence may be advisable, if this can be done safely.


Emplacing a submerged cache always involves two basic steps: weighting the container to keep it from floating to the surface and mooring it keep it in place.

Container Weighting and Mooring

Ordinarily, container weights rest on the bottom of the lake or river and function as anchors, and the mooring connect the anchors to the container. The moorings must also serve a second function, that is to provide a handle for pulling the cache to the surface when it is recovered. If the moorings are not accessible for recovery, another line must extend from the cache to a fixed, accessible object in the water or on shore.

There are four types of moorings.

(1) Spider Web Mooring.

The container is attached to several mooring cables that radiate to anchors placed around it to form a web. The container must be buoyant so that it lifts the cables for enough off the bottom to be readily secured by grappling. The site must be located exactly at the time of emplacement by visual sightings to fixed landmarks in the water, or along the shore, using several FRP’s to establish a point where two

sighted lines intersect. For recovery, the site is located by taking sightings on the reference points, when a mooring cable is engaged by dragging the bottom of diving. This method of mooring is most difficult for recovery. It can be used only where the bottom is smooth and firm enough for dragging, or where the water is not too deep, cold, or murky for diving.

(2) Line-to-Shore Mooring.

A line in run from the weighted container to an immovable object along the shore. The section of the line that extends from the shore to the shore must be buried in the ground or otherwise well concealed.

(3) Buoy Mooring.

A line is run from the weighted container to a buoy or other fixed, floating marker, and fastened well below the waterline. This method is secure only as long as the buoy is left in place. Buoys are generally inspected and repainted every six months or so. The inspection schedule should be determined before a buoy is used.

(4) Structural Mooring.

A line for retrieving the weighted container is run to a bridge pier or other solid structure in the water. This line must be fastened well below the low-water mark.

Essential Data for Submersion

Whatever method of mooring is used, planners must carefully consider certain data before designing a submerged cache. The cache very likely will be lost if any of the following critical factors are overlooked:


Many containers are buoyant even when filled, so the container must be weighted sufficiently to submerge it and keep it in place. If the contents do not provide enough weight, emplacers must make up the balance by attaching a weight to the container. The approximate weight needed to attain zero buoyancy is shown in Appendix. This figure applies to several sizes of stainless steel containers.

The weighting required for any container can be calculated theoretically if the displacement of the container and the gross weight of the container plus its contents are known. This calculation may be useful for designing an anchor, but is should no t be relied upon for actual emplacement. To avoid hurried improvisation during emplacement, emplacers should always test the buoyancy in advance by actually submerging the weighted container. This test determines only that a submerged cache will no t float to the surface.

Additional weighting may be required to keep it from drifting along the bottom. As a general rule, the additional weight should be a least one-tenth of the gross weight required to make the container sink; more weight is advisable if strong currents are present.

Submersion depth.

Planners must first determine the depth which the container is to be submerged to calculate the water pressure that the container must withstand. The greater the depth, the greater the danger that the container will be crushed by water pressure. For instance, the standard stainless steel burial container will buckle at a depth of approximately 4.3 meters. The difficulty of waterproofing also increases with depth. Thus, the container should not be submerged any deeper than necessary to avoid detection. As a general rule, 2.2 meters is the maximum advisable depth for caching. If seasonal or tidal variations in the water level require deeper submersion, the container should be tested by actual submersion to the maximum depth it must withstand.

Depth of the Water.

Emplacers must measure accurately the depth of the water where at the point where the cache is to be placed. The will be the submersion depth if the cache is designed so that the container rests on the bottom of the lake or rive r. The container may be suspended some distance above the bottom, but the depth of the water must be known to determine the length of moorings connecting the containers to the anchors.

High-and-Low-Water Marks.

Any tidal or seasonal changes in the depth of the water should be estimated as accurately as possible. Emplacers must consider the low-water mark to ensure that low water will not leave cache exposed. The high-water point also should be considered to ensure that the increased depth will crush the container or prevent recovery.

Type of Bottom.

Emplacers should probe as thoroughly as possible the bed of the lake or river in the vicinity of the cache. If the bottom is soft and silty, the cache may sink into the muck, become covered with sediment, or drift out of place. If the bottom is rocky or covered with debris, the mooring may become snagged. Any of these conditions may make recovery very difficult.

Water Motion.

Emplacers should consider tides, currents, and waves because any water motion will put additional strain on the moorings of the cache. Moorings must be strong enough to withstand the greatest possible strain. If the water motion tends to rock the cache, emplacers must take special care to prevent the moorings from rubbing and fraying.

Clearness of the Water.

When deciding how deep to submerge the cache, emplacers must first determine how far the cache can be seen through the water. If the water is clear, the cache may need to be camouflaged by painting the container to match the bottom. (Always paint shiny metallic fixtures a dull color.) Very murk water makes recovery by divers more difficult.

Water Temperature.

Planners must consider seasonal changes in the temperature of the water. Recovery may be impossible in the winter if the water freezes. The dates when the lake or river usually freezes and thaws should be determined as accurately as possible.

Salt Water.

Since seawater is much more corrosive than fresh water, tidal estuaries and lagoons should not be used for caching. The only exception is the maritime re-supply operation, where equipment may be submerged temporarily along the seacoast until it can be recovered by a shore party.


There are many different ways to conceal a cache in natural or ready-made hiding places. For instance, if a caching party were hiding weapons and ammunition in a cave, relying entirely on natural concealment, the emplacement operation would be reduced to simply locating the site. No tools would be needed except paper, pencil and a flashlight. On the other hand, if the party were sealing a packet of jewels in a brick wall, a skilled mason would be needed, his kit of tools, and a supply of mortar expertly mixed to match the original brick wall.

When planning for concealment, planners must know the local residents and their customs. During the actual emplacement, the caching party must ensure the operation is not observed. The final sterilization of the site is especially important, since a concealment site is usually open to frequent observation.


As a general rule, all equipment for a particular purpose (demolitions, survival) should be included in one container. Some equipment, however, is so sensitive from a security standpoint that it should be packed in several containers and cached in different locations to minimize the danger of discovery by the enemy. This is particularly true of communications equipment, since under some circumstances anyone who acquires a whole RT set with a signal plan and cryptographic material would be able to play the set back. An especially dangerous type of penetration would result. In the face of this danger, the signal plan and the cryptographic material must never be placed in the same container. Ideally a communications kit should be distributed among three containers and cached in different locations. If three containers are used , the distribution may be as follows:

Container #1: The RT set, including the crystals.

Container #2: The signal plan and operational supplies for the RT operator, such as currency, barter and small arms.

Container #3: The cryptographic material.

When several containers are used for one set of equipment, they must be placed far enough apart so that if one is discovered, the others will not be detected in the immediate vicinity. On the other hand, they should be located close enough together so that they can be recovered conveniently in one operation. The distance between containers will depend on the particular situation, but ordinarily they should be at least 10 meters apart. One final reference point ordinarily is used for a multiple cache. The caching party should be careful to avoid placing multiple caches in a repeated pattern. Discovery of one multiple cache would give the opposition a guide for probing others placed in a similar pattern.


A feasibility study must be performed to determine the need for the caching of medical supplies. The purpose of caches is to store excess medical supplies, to maintain mobility, and deny access to the enemy. Also caching large stockpiles of medical supplies allows prepositioning vital supplies in anticipation of future planned operations.


The final step, which is vital in every emplacement operation, is the preparation of a cache report. This report records the essential data for recovery. The cache report must provide all of the information that someone unfamiliar with the locality needs to find his way to the site, recover the cache, and return safely. The report format follows.


1. Type of Cache

2. Method of Caching

3. Contents

4. Description of Containers

5. General Area

6. Immediate Area

7. Cache Location

8. Emplacement Details

9. Operational Data and Remarks

10. Dates of Emplacement and Duration of the Cache

11. Sketches and Diagrams

12. Radio Message for Recovery
U.S. Army Special Forces Caching Techniques


The most important parts of the cache report must include instructions for finding and recovering the cache. it should also include any other information that will ease planning the recover operation. Since the details will depend upon the situation and the particular needs of each organization, the exact format of the report cannot be prescribed. The Twelve-Point cache Report is intended merely to point out the minimum essential data. Whatever format is used, the importance of attention to detail cannot be overemphasized. A careless error or omission in the cache report may prevent recovery of the cache when it is needed.


The observer should collect as much data as possible during the personal reconnaissance to assist in selecting a site and planning emplacement and recovery operations. Drafting the cache report before emplacement is also advisable. Following these procedures will reveal the omissions. Then the missing data can be obtained at the site. If this procedure is followed, the preparation of the final cache report will be reduced to an after-action check. This check ensures that the cache actually was placed precisely where planned and that all other descriptive details are accurate.

The caching party should complete the final cache report as soon as possible after emplacement, as details are fresh in mind.
Someone who has not visited the site should check the instructions by using them to lead the party to the site. When so such person is available, someone should visit the site shortly after emplacement, provided he can do so securely. If the cache has been embraced at night, a visit to the site in daylight may also provide an opportunity to check on the sterilization of the site.

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This Hand-To-Hand Combat Training guide will teach you how you can kill another person with your own two hands. The information presented here will be very helpful to the beginner and will also serve as a refresher for those of you already familiar with the subject.

I will start off by talking about basic things such as stance, what you should and shouldn’t do when fighting and other information that the beginner will need to know. Then, I will give you a list of over 20 vulnerable points that one should always try attacking in a fight along with the way these points should be attacked. Finally, I will give you some more fighting tips and information on how you can continue learning about hand-to-hand combat.

Now, let me discuss some of the basics you will need to know when you are in any combat situation.


The best stance when confronting an enemy is to put your feet at shoulders length apart and your arms should be facing forward, parallel to each other and bent at the elbows. Keep your knees slightly bent and stand on the balls of your feet.

Remember, you always want to maintain this stance when you are not striking at the enemy.


It is always important that you keep your balance. If you use the stance I have described above, you will never have to worry about it. If by chance you do lose your balance even for a second you can kiss your ass goodbye as the enemy will probably kill you.


Always be aggressive and always attack. Don’t just stand back and defend yourself against the enemy’s strikes as he will end up killing you eventually. If you are not aggressive, the enemy will think you are scared and he will have an advantage over you.

A great thing to do is yell at the enemy. This will scare the shit out of him if you start yelling at him and plus it also allows you to get more oxygen in your lungs so you will have more strength.

Natural Weapons

Your natural weapons are as follows: knife edge of either hand, the heel of your hands, your fingers folded at the second knuckle, your boot, your elbow, your knees, your teeth, your fore finger and second finger forming a “V” shape, and your fist. These body parts alone are some of the most powerful weapons you can use.

Since you now know the basics of fighting, let me list for you the best places where you should strike your enemy.


A sharp blow to the temple ensures instant death since there is a large artery and nerve located close to the skin surface. If you give a medium blow to the temple it will cause severe pain and concussion but a hard blow will kill the enemy instantly. The best way to strike the temple is with the knife edge of your hand or if he is on the ground you can kick him with the toe of your boot.


The eyes are a great place to strike if you can since a good strike in the eyes will cause temporary or permanent blindness. To blind the enemy, make a “V” shape with your fore finger and second finger and stick them into his eyes while keeping your fingers stiff. Also, you can gouge the eyes with your thumb.


The nose is another excellent place to attack. Hit the bridge with the knife edge of your hand and you will cause breakage, severe pain, temporary blindness and even death. Or you can use the palm of your hand to strike upwards and push the nose up into his brain. If done hard enough the nose bone will puncture his brain and he will die.

Upper Lip

The upper lip contains a lot of nerves close to the skin surface so if you strike it with the knife edge of your hand it will cause great pain and if delivered hard enough he will become unconscious.


If the enemy is on the ground, use the heel of your boot and strike him on the mouth. Since there are a lot of veins and arteries in the teeth there will be a lot of blood which will frighten the enemy and he will lose concentration on defending other parts of his body.


The chin should only be struck with the palm of your hand as you can break your fingers on the enemy’s chin. Use the palm of your hand and strike the enemy with a very strong upward blow. This will cause extreme discomfort.

Adam’s Apple

Usually the enemy will defend this part of his body well but if you do get the chance give it a sharp hit with the knife edge of your hand. If you hit it hard enough you will bust his windpipe and he will die. You can also squeeze the Adam’s Apple between your fingers.


If you have a chance to get a hold of his neck, press your thumbs into his esophagus (located below the Adam’s Apple). Pushing hard will be very painful and it will block the oxygen flow to his lungs and he will die quickly.


If you give a very strong blow to the base of the neck with the knife edge of your hand you will usually break it. However, if it is not hard enough, the enemy might just be knocked unconscious so be sure to hit him in the temple or twist his neck around to be sure he is dead. The neck is the best place to hit someone if you want to be quiet as it is quick and the enemy goes down without a word.

Collar Bone

The collar bone is an extremely sensitive part of the body. A sharp blow to it with the knife edge of your hand or your elbow gives the enemy excruciating pain. Also, digging your finger into the collar bone can bring your enemy to his knees.


The shoulder is easy dislocated and it takes little strength to do. However, it should be done quickly. Grab the enemy’s arm and pull it behind his back and then jerk it upwards quickly. You should here a popping sound which means you have dislocated the enemy’s shoulder. There are other methods of doing this but this is the easiest.


Although it is hard to get at, the armpit has a large network of nerves. If the enemy is on the ground, hold up his arm and then kick him in his pit. This will cause severe pain. However, it is not a very common place that will be struck in a fight but is good to keep in mind anyways.

Rib Cage

A strike to the rib cage with your fingers folded at the second knuckle is rather painful and if done hard enough causes severe pain and breakage. Only use your fingers folded at the second knuckle since that hurts the most.

Solar Plexus

The solar plexus is located on the chest at the little “V” shaped point where the rib cage ends. There are a large amount of nerves so a blow with the knuckle of your second finger can cause severe pain and even unconsciousness.

Floating Ribs

The floating ribs are the lower ribs located at the front and sides of the enemy’s body. Use the knife edge of your hand or the heel or toe of your boot. The blow will cause pain and will stun the enemy.


A blow to the spine with the heel of your boot can paralyze or kill your enemy. The lower spine between the enemy’s kidneys is the best place to hit as that is the least protected part of the spine. You will only be able to attack the spine when your enemy is on the ground or if his back is turned to you.


The kidneys have two large nerves that are close to the skin surface. If you strike the kidneys hard it will cause death. You can use a fist or the knife edge of your hand to hit the kidneys. Or a kick with the heel of your boot will work too.


The groin is a good place to strike if you get the chance. Generally, the enemy will protect this area the most but if you have a chance, strike it with your knee in an upward motion or with your fist. I’m sure you can imagine the pain the enemy will get from it.


The tailbone which is located above the anus is a very sensitive part of the body as a lot of spinal nerves are located there. Use the toe of your boot to strike the tailbone. The pain from that is unbelievably severe.


The elbow is easy to break or dislocate. Pull the enemy’s arm behind him and with the palm of your hand push his elbow inwards until it either cracks or pops. When the enemy has a useless arm, you have a great advantage over him.


The fingers should be broken because the enemy becomes almost helpless with broken fingers. Grab the enemy’s arm with one hand and with the other hand push the fingers upwards until they snap. It is only necessary to break the first two fingers. It is also helpful in breaking a grip.


You can destroy the knee by kicking it with the side of your boot in an upward motion. This will rip the ligaments and the cartilage. This will cause unbelievable pain and make it impossible for the enemy to move around. Once a knee has been ruined, you will have a great advantage over the enemy.


If the enemy is on the ground, get a hold of his ankle and twist it until it snaps. This will make it almost impossible for him to walk and he will then be easy to kill.

Let me talk about some more important things you should remember when you are fighting somebody.


Always try to throw your enemy off balance. You can do this by charging the enemy and pretending to strike him. This will make him flinch and lose his balance.

Always look for a weak spot and attack it. Whenever he leaves a vulnerable part of his body unprotected attack it with all your strength. By doing this, he will then try to protect the part of his body that you just struck thus leaving even more unprotected parts open.

Use any available object that you can. By this I mean throw sand in his eyes, block his strikes by hitting him with a large branch, or any other kind of available material that can be used as a weapon against him.

Foul Play

In a life or death situation there is no such thing as foul play and there are no rules either. Although hitting someone in the groin is considered a cheap shot in high school, it is a very effective way of destroying your enemy. Just hit him where you can and kick him when he’s down. That way, he will never get back up again.

I have now explained to you the basics of fighting and the best places to attack your enemy on his body. Just because you have read this file doesn’t mean you will be able to go out and kick somebody’s ass in. These methods take a lot of practice in order to do them properly.

If you enjoyed this file and would like to practice these methods get a partner who is also interested in this and work on each type of strike and kick. When you first start out, go slowly and remember that these methods are deadly and do not require much force to be effective so take it easy on your partner.

Some of you may decide that practicing is not enough and you would like to learn more than what I have told you in the above. Well, there are several good books with illustrations on this subject which go into much more detail than I ever could in this file. The book I used mainly to write this file was “The Marine Corps Field Manual on Physical Security”. You can get this book through a good book store or if you happen to know a marine, he can get you a copy very easily.

There are also camps where you can go for 1-2 weeks to learn all sorts of things like this such as firing weapons, detailed hand-to-hand combat, doing raids on enemies and all sorts of other stuff like that. The instructors that teach these programs are well trained and have had years of experience with this. However, usually you have to be 18 years or older to get into these programs and you have to be very serious about it as well. This is not one of those programs where you can say “Time-out, I need to rest.” They don’t stop just to suit you. To get more information about these programs, you can usually find out about them in magazines like “Soldier of Fortune” and other magazines with similar theme.

Well, that’s it for now. Perhaps in the future I can discuss the fun stuff like fighting people with knives and all the other lethal weapons you can use in a fight. If you liked this Hand-To-Hand Combat Training guide, let me know and I will continue on with this subject.

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Article on ‘Teargas and Related Items’ contains information on making substances which are illegal or harmful. Neither the website carrying this article nor its author can be considered responsible for making this information available. This article is intended for information only.


Capstun (capsaicin) is the active oil in red pepper. If you don’t think something derived from pepper can be as good as CN or CS tear gas, think. Even if a person is maced, he can still can still function if he is motivated enough. Capstun is an irritant which causes nasal passages to swell , making the affected person breathe through their mouth which in turn causes them to inhale the capstun which affects the throat causing choking. It’s effect in the eyes is extreme tearing and pain. In addition it causes a burning sensation on any exposed skin. Capstun does not cause permanent damage.

Capstun is easy to make. The only drawback is you have to heat up ethyl alcohol which is flammable.

Obtain 1 lb. of dried red or green hot peppers. The hotter the better. Chop them up in a blender and put them into a large jug. Add denatured ethyl alcohol to the peppers until they are covered by an inch or two of alcohol. Put the jug into a pot of water on an electric burner and bring the alcohol almost to a simmer. Be very careful as the alcohol fumes can ignite. Don’t use a flame to heat the water. Let the alcohol cool a bit then filter it off. Repeat this 3 times.

Throw out the peppers and put all the alcohol into a large mouthed jar. Take the water pot/heater outside and heat up the alcohol. Evaporate the alcohol down to about 100 mls. Filter off the alcohol again and let it evaporate to leave a thick reddish oil. If you are adventurish take a minute amount of the oil and taste it. Have plenty of water on hand though.

Capstun is usually used as a 1% to 5% solution. Cut it down with mineral oil or another suitable carrier.

Captsun Bomb:

Take a 12 gauge shotgun shell and open the crimp. Pour out the shot and seal the shot cup with a thin layer of epoxy. The seal must be oil- proof. Take a 1 in. long piece of broomhandle and drill a small hole through it’s center. Epoxy it onto the brass end of the shell so that the hole is over the primer. Now fill the shell with a 5% solution of capstun. Close the crimp up again and epoxy the end shut. Take a cloth streamer about 1 1/2 in. wide by 2 ft. long and epoxy one end of it to the crimp end of the shell.

When all is ready take a short nail and insert it through the hole up against the primer. Hold it in place with 2 pieces of tape. To use this, fold the streamer up in your palm and place the shell on top of the streamer. Throw the shell in a high arc. The streamer will cause the shell to land nail end first setting off the primer. When the shell goes off it will spray the capstun into the air. Two of these can clear the street.

If you have problems with the capstun leaking, try loading it first into a small plastic bag. Heat seal the open end of the bag then load it in the shotgun shell without the shot cup.

Even though the capstun won’t cause damage, the carrier it is dissolved in can, so chose it carefully.

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Vomiting Gas

Chloropicrin: Chloropicrin is also known as vomiting gas. Though not really a gas but a liquid, the inhalation of it’s mist or fumes causes projectile vomiting in humans. It’s production is easy but requires some special equipment. Needed are a chemical hood or glove box, protective clothing and
a gas mask or clean air respirator. The gas mask must be impermeable to the fumes of chloropicrin as the chemical is known to penetrate most masks. When all the equipment is assembled put 65 gm. Fuming Nitric Acid and 120 gm. Chloroform in your box or hood. Also needed is about 1/2 lb. of plaster of paris. Put on your protective clothing and turn on the exhaust of the hood. Slowly pour the nitric acid into the chloroform while stirring and cooling the mixture. The acid is added a little at a time. When all the acid is added continue stirring for 15 min. The reaction flask contains chloropicrin and water. This water will hydrolyze and destroy the chloropicrin after a while and must be removed. This is where the plaster comes in. Added a tsp. of plaster and stir.

Continue adding the plaster and stirring until about 6 oz. of plaster is in the mix. Cap the flask and let the plaster settle out. When all the plaster is settled, filter the chloropicrin through filter paper into another container that you will store it in. The process is done. To make fuming nitric acid take red fuming nitric acid and add a little urea. Blow dry air through it until the red fumes stop coming off.

Chloropicrin (known in chemwarfare circles as PS) can be mixed with either CN or CS teargas. The makes a very nasty chemweapon. The effects of both substances are magnified. The effects of this mix does not wear off in an hour or so but can continue for a week or more.

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Ethyl Alcohol
Sulfuric Acid
Calcium Oxide


Distilling Set (see below)
Chlorine Bottle
Glass Tubing
Rubber Tubing
Aquarium Aerator
Basting Syringe
Cooking Thermometer
600 ml Beaker
Water Glass

Knock-Out Drops

A piece of glass is fitted into the bottom of the stopper for the flask. To that is placed an eight-inch length of rubber tubing and at the end of this is the aerator. Two more pieces of glass is put in the top of the stopper.

First, you will need pure alcohol so buy some 100 proof vodka and distill it until you have about 12 oz.

Put the alcohol in the flask.Put about two inches of bleach and a teaspoon of Sani-Flush in the chlorine bottle. This will generate the chlorine gas that you will need. Start the chlorine through the alcohol while the flask is still cold. Watch it carefully to see when the alcohol stops absorbing the chlorine. Then light a alcohol lamp and place it under the 600 ml flask. Keep the flame low until the alcohol stops absorbing again. Raise the flame and repeat. Continue this until the alcohol is boiling. Some of the alcohol will distill off into the collection bottle. Several times during the process, pour this back into the 600 ml beaker.

When the alcohol is totally chlorinated the flask is poured into a porcelain dish and allowed to cool. If you have done this right the cooled product should be a crystalline mass of unrefined Cloral Hydrate.

Now, pour strong sulfuric acid, three times the volume of the Cloral Hydrate, into the pan. Place this pan on your stove over gentle heat. When the cloral hydrate is melted, it and the sulfuric acid are stirred thoroughly pour this into the flask and heat again. But this time use the thermometer and don’t let it get over 200 F.

As the mixture heats up, the still impure cloral hydrate will rise to the surface. When it stops rising, use the basting syringe and draw the top off of the sulfuric acid. Repeat this until the pan is empty.

Put the cloral hydrate (you drew it off in the last step) into the beaker and heat at about 190 F. for 20 minutes. This will get rid of any alcohol or acid still in it. Pour this back into the flask and add an equal amount of sulfuric acid. Swirl this around to mix it.

Once again you must distill the mixture. But this time it is easy since the cloral hydrate will boil at 210 F and the sulfuric acid boils at 722 F. When finished pour out the acid, then wash and dry the flask. Now, put the powered Calcium Oxide, equal in volume to the cloral hydrate into the flask, add the cloral hydrate and distill again. Stop as soon as the surface of the oxide is dry.

To Use Knock-Out Drops:

add one part water to two parts {by volume} of the finished product. The dose is 1/28th of an oz (1 gram). The best way to use this is to put it into a mixed drink, because it has a bitter taste. In about 15 minutes, whoever you gave it to is out for the night.

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Low Explosives

These may include Propellants, but they’re all DEFLAGRATORY explosives. Black powder is the oldest and most familiar. It is nearly impossible to get it to truly “detonate,” i.e. develop a supersonic overpressure wave. (“Air waves?” Gimme’ a break!) Deflagration is a rapid burning (Oxidation) reaction. It generally requires a fuel, such as an organic substance or a finely divided metal, and an Oxidizer, such as a Nitrate, Chlorate or Perchlorate, although there are others. In fact, several comps don’t carry any Oxygen at all, perhaps the best known being a Zinc/Sulfur propellant (although the impetus and therefore the specific impulse are rather weak).

Perhaps the best known, outside of Blackpowder, is a flash comp known as M-80 mix (70/30 KClO4/dark Aluminum). (That’s the official arsenal designation. M-100, M-1,000 and the rest are all bullshit. The actual designation is “Composition-Pyrotechnic-M-80.” using the above formula.)

Deflagration can best be described as the rapid oxidation/combustion of two or more elements into another product by rapid reorganization of constituent materials, resulting in an equally rapid energy release, usually heat and gaseous expansion.

When contained in a vessel such as a heavy walled, paper tube, sufficient pressure accumulates to burst it in such a manner that it develops an overpressure wave which can be loosely described as an “explosion.” If the force released is sufficient to create an overpressure with enough shock and gaseous expansion, work can be accomplished. Before the advent of Nitroglycerin and other high explosives, this is how blasting operations were accomplished, such as mining and road building. They would drill holes in the geologic structures to be disrupted, light a fuse that was placed in the charge and run like hell.

And of course, this deflagatory reaction created sufficient pressure to propel a projectile out of a tube with enough force to push a small pellet of lead into an opposing combatant, or a stone, Iron ball or explosive vessel into a castle wall, a ship’s hull or a formation of troops.

In the late 19th century, Alfred Nobel discovered that cellulose fibers could be subjected to a mixed acid Nitration to produce a substance (Nitrocellulose) which could propel a projectile with much more force than blackpowder. This so-called “smokeless” propellant was capable of achieving much higher velocities than the ancient, nitrate-based propellants that people used to kill each other with for all of those hundreds of years. Nowadays, propellants may include Nitroglycerine, as both a plasticizer and inhibitor(believe it or not) to keep the NC from detonating under pressure. Ethyl Centralite may also be employed for this purpose. Nitroguanidine may also be employed, primarily as a bulking agent, and doesn't add much to the kinetic impetus, but does “fluff” the charge for ease of ignition, and does at least “carry its own weight” as far as power. In recent years, Nitramines (think RDX) and Nitric Esters (think PETN & HMX) have added substantially to velocity (and hence KE), but at the expense of bore erosion problems.

High Explosives

This is a different animal entirely. Instead of a fuel and an Oxidizer rearranging themselves, the reaction is based on the ability of Nitrogen to combine (but only barely) with other elements in a tenuous fashion which makes the resulting molecules hang together until they are somehow jarred apart.

High explosives are rated according to comparison with TNT (Trinitrotoluene) in terms of expansion, brisance (primarily measured as Velocity of Detonation, or VOD), and reactive pressure, sensitivity to shock, friction and heating on a percentage basis. For instance, PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate) has an overall energy release of 160% of TNT, and Nitroglycerine about 120. There are other parameters as well, such as Oxygen balance when blending with other compounds. For instance, PETN has a negative OB (-8%), and Ammonium Nitrate a positive one. So when the two are mixed in the correct proportions and properly detonated, they compliment each other, and some of the brizance (shattering effect) of the PETN is combined with the “heave” (gaseous expansion & therefore work)of the AN is combined.

Primary Explosives

Unless you really know what you’re doing, these are nothing to mess with. Especially Organic Peroxides. Some are super easy to make, but that doesn’t mean that just anybody can go fucking around with this stuff.

Silver Fulminate was the original initiator compound for NG/Dynamite, but it’s so sensitive that it has been relegated to cigarette loads, throwdown “poppers” and the like. Soon after, it was found that Mercury, subjected to the same Nitration process, would produce an initiator (Mercury Fulminate)that was as powerful as the Silver-based compound, but much less sensitive, making it safer to handle.

Still, the Hg-based primary had its problems. Today, the standard layout is Lead Azide, which is much less sensitive than its predecessors, and delivers sufficient force to shoot most Gelatin Dynamites. ANFO, however, is still so insensitive, and so commonly used, that a booster between the primary & secondary charges is required. This usually takes the form of a small amount of PETN, RDX or HMX. With Primaries, the main concern is not just the VOD, but the pressure developed. However, Detonation velocity is still important, and PETN (7,800 MPS), RDX (8,400) and HMX (9,000) will certainly take care of that. For large charges, separate boosters are used which are significantly larger than the caps themselves, sometimes weighing several pounds. Also, nowadays the primary is dispensed with entirely, and an “exploding bridgewire” consisting of a small diameter wire or strip of foil, usually gold,is subjected to a quick(400usec), high energy(800vdc @400-600ma) burst of electricity, which actually vaporizes with sufficient force to initiate a booster charge, usually a Nitric Ester or Nitramine.

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The explosion inside a firing cartridge burns the gunpowder so completely that no analytical technique has yet been developed that consistently identifies the remaining trace quantities of unburned powder on the hands or clothing of the shooter. However, several procedures to accomplish this have been tried over the years. In the first attempts to associate an individual with a firearm, the hands were coated with a film of paraffin in order to lift off residual nitrites. This residue then could be visualized with diphenylamine.

This procedure was abandoned over 20 years ago, however, because nitrites do not provide sufficient specificity, and because large deposits are necessary to yield an adequate color development. Still, even today, many investigators erroneously refer to the “paraffin test” when discussing modern gunshot primer residue analysis.

Continued investigation into applications of neutron activation analysis identified two noncombustible primer mixture components, barium and antimony, as detectable residues from the discharge of most ammunition. (1) It was this discovery that led to the reliable tests available to the law enforcement community today.


In the most common analytical protocol, cotton swabs moistened with diluted nitric acid are wiped over the web and palm areas of each hand. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) or atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) is used to determine the quantities of barium and antimony on the swabs from both areas of each hand. Since neither barium nor antimony is unique to GSR, it is necessary to find both elements in amounts within the range found on the hands of persons who are known to have recently fired a weapon (a control group).

In another method, technicians use adhesive disks to pick up microscopic particles of GSR from the hands. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped to conduct energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) is used to detect particles containing barium and antimony. SEM-EDXA produces a visual image of particles, thereby providing the analyst with useful size and shape information. Additionally, the barium and antimony are shown to occur specifically within these particles, as opposed to being part of general background contamination. This technique has gained support in recent years due to the development of automated systems that simplify and eliminate much of the lengthy and tedious searching process.

There are variations and combinations of these methods. However, they all rely, at least in part, on finding barium and antimony as presumptive evidence of GSR.


Gunshot primer residue is much like chalk on the hands of a school teacher using a blackboard. The minute the teacher walks away from the board, chalk loss starts through mechanical actions, such as rubbing the hands together, putting them in pockets, rubbing them against clothing, or handling objects. Therefore, officers are instructed to collect GSR evidence immediately upon making an arrest. Generally, there is little hope of finding adequate quantities of barium and antimony to associate an individual with a weapon after 3 hours of normal hand activities. And, washing the hands removes essentially all GSR deposits.

Unfortunately, ideal GSR collection procedures are at odds with the fundamental precept of immediately handcuffing arrestees hands behind their backs. This cuffing procedure can greatly decrease the amount of GSR because the outer webs of the hands are pressed against the body. Any improper procedures should be addressed by arresting officers and crime scene personnel since they could lead to elimination or contamination of this potentially valuable evidence.

GSR collection kits are available at police supply stores and through catalogs. The deceptively simple appearance of these kits implies that acceptable substitutes can be made from standard drugstore items. However, this practice can introduce multiple errors into the collection process. These errors can be avoided by using collection kits and questionnaires prepared commercially or by knowledgeable laboratory personnel.


The real value of the GSR test is that it can associate an individual with a firearm. It is important, however, to note that this does not identify that person as the shooter. GSR can settle on any hand placed near a weapon as it is fired. A person can pick up GSR simply by handling a dirty weapon or discharged ammunition components. It is also possible, but very unlikely, that residue would be deposited on hands by other means. Thus, placing an individual in an environment of GSR generally puts that person in the presence of a firearm.

At the same time, failure to find GSR on the hands does not mean that a person tested did not handle or fire a weapon. For example, many test firings under controlled conditions in the FBI Laboratory do not deposit sufficient quantities of the material to allow identification. A firearm may produce deposits on five consecutive firings but not on the sixth. A weapon may simply not be sufficiently dirty or not handled enough to effect a transfer.

As noted earlier, GSR could have been deposited but later removed through washing or normal use of the hands. A finding of inconclusive amounts of barium and antimony simply means that the analyst can offer no opinion of value associating a tested individual with a firearm. The situation is analogous to a fingerprint analyst having no opinion concerning a particular person’s presence at a crime scene if print analysis is inconclusive.

The tests using neutron activation analysis (NAA) or atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for determining the total barium and antimony in each sample does not constitute an unequivocal identification of GSR. When elevated levels of both elements are found in a sample, the results are reported as being consistent with those obtained from persons known to have discharged a firearm. It is unlikely, but possible, to get independent environmental contamination of both elements in one or more of the four specimens collected from each person tested.

Barium and antimony can be found in trace amounts on most hands, and it is not uncommon to detect elevated levels in samples from a nonshooters hands. In a recent study, the FBI Laboratory analyzed samples from the hands of persons who had not been near a firearm. Of 267 sets of hand samples analyzed, 9 (3 percent) had significantly elevated levels of both elements and most of these were eliminated as being consistent with GSR by other parameters relevant to GSR tests. (2)

Analysis of GSR on the victim has little value in a suicide-homicide situation and should not be used routinely on the victim as an investigative tool. More gunshot residue goes out of the weapon’s barrel with the bullet than escapes near the handle. If the victim of a close range shooting attempts to grab the gun or instinctively shields the head, significant deposits can be left on the hands. Laboratory analysis cannot reliably determine whether the deposit was made in this manner or was the result of a self-directed firing.

Likewise, suspects at the crime scene should only be sampled if they do not admit to or cannot otherwise be associated with a weapon at the approximate time of the shooting. The person who just returned from a hunting trip or claims to have struggled with the victim (or assailant) over the weapon before the shooting, for example, generally should not be tested for GSR.

Accurate identification of GSR largely depends on the prior experiences of the laboratory performing the analysis to determine what is expected from specific areas of the hands after handling weapons. Such information is not generally available, except for these specifically defined and studied areas of the hands. Thus, surfaces, such as automobile windows, clothing, and parts of the body other than these specific areas of the hands, are usually not suitable for GSR examinations.

Several factors can affect the analysis of unfamiliar surfaces, including environmental barium and antimony contamination and the potential for previous exposure to GSR. The latter concern is significant because GSR is not volatile and will generally remain on a surface until it is mechanically removed. Thus, GSR on the clothing of a suspected shooter can be explained by that person handling a weapon while wearing the garment several weeks earlier.


The detection of gunshot primer residue on the hands of an individual confirms that this person was in an environment of the material within a few hours preceding the collection of samples. This would likely result from firing a weapon, handling a weapon or ammunition, or being in close proximity to a weapon as it is discharged by another person.

Failure to detect GSR on the hands indicates that the test offers no information of value in determining whether an individual had been in the presence of the material. With the exception of very few well-defined situations, nothing more should be inferred from the results of GSR tests.

To avoid useless analysis, officers should not collect samples if:

The person can be associated recently with a firearm by a witness,
The hands were washed or more than a few hours have elapsed since the shooting,
The ammunition used in the shooting does not contain both barium and antimony.
Setting these parameters saves time and eliminates much of the misunderstanding and confusion surrounding GSR tests. Like any analytical process, certain conditions must exist to ensure a useful GSR analysis.

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To request a Birth Certificate you should write directly or call the custodian to obtain a copy of the record. You should provide as much information as you possibly can. This includes:

The full name of the person born
The date of the birth
The place of the birth
The sex of the child
Parents full names, including mother’s maiden name
Include payment as indicated
Born Abroad

U.S. Citizens Born Abroad
(with U.S. Citizenship at birth)
Birth Records Only
Correspondence Br.

Passport Services

Department of State
Room 386
1425 K Street, NW
D.C. 20522-1705

A record is available only if the birth was registered with the American Consular Office at birth. Show the location of this consular office in the request. An endorsed copy of the Consular Report or a birth certificate is furnished; either document is sufficient.

Cost of Copy:


Department of Public Health Center for Health Statistics
P.O. Box 5265
AL 36103-5625
The fee is $12.00 each and $4.00 for each additional copy. Make check payable to Alabama State Board of Health. Send requests for expedited search by overnight express mail service and add $10.00 to fee.


Bureau of Vital Statistics
State Dept. of Health & Social Services
P.O. Box 110675
Juneau, AK 99811-0675


Births of Alaskan natives were apparently not recorded until 1930 or later, except in the towns and cities listed below, where some records are available beginning with the date shown. The BVS will accept bank cards for all record requests made by telephone to 907-465-3392. There is a $10.00 charge for this service. No other telephone requests will be honored.

1916 Anchorage
1920 Cordova
1913 Fairbanks
1913 Haines
1950 Homer
1913 Juneau
1913 Kenai
1913 Ketchikan
1913 Kodiak
1913 Nome
1937 Palmer
1913 Petersburg
1913 Seward
1913 Sitka
1913 Skagway
1913 Soldotna
1913 Valdez
1913 Wrangell
American Samoa Registrar of Vital Statistics
Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799
Phone: 684-633-1222


Birth records from 1930 on are on computer. Prior to 1930 some records may not be recorded due to the manner in which birth information was recorded.

Cost of Copy:


Vital Records
Dept. of Health Services
P.O. Box 3887
Phoenix. AZ 85030
You will need a picture identification with signature (or a photocopy of same) to acquire a birth record. If the picture ID has no signature, then a notarized signature must be presented also. State your relationship to the requester (e.g., self, spouse, parent) as well as the need for the birth record. If a personal check is used for payment, no birth record will be released until the check clears. Thirty days after the request has been received, you may call 602-255-3260 if the check has cleared to receive the Birth Certificate sooner. Be prepared to provide the four digit verification number and date stamp on the back of the cancelled check.

Cost of Copy:
(Long) $9.00, (Short, 1950 to
present only) $6.00


Arkansas Dept. of Health
Division of Vital Records
4815 West Markham Street, Slot 44,
Little Rock, AR 72205-3867


Request birth records directly from DVR. DVR will accept VISA and MasterCard requests for records made by telephone to 501-661-2726.

Cost of Copy:


Dept. of Health Services
Vital Statistics Section
P.O. Box 730241
Sacramento, CA


The DHS will accept bank cards for birth record requests made by telephone to 916-445-2684. There is a $5.00 fee for this service Fax requests paid for by bank cards can be made to 1-800-858-5553.

The fax should include the name, date of event, place of event, father’s name, mother’s maiden name, customer’s name, daytime phone, return address, credit card number and expiration date.

There is a $15.50 fee. BVS will express mail the response to requests received by phone or fax.


Records and Statistics Section Dept. of Health,
Vital Records 4300 Cheery Creek Dr
S. No. A-1 Denver, CO 80222-1530

Colorado has birth records for the entire State since 1910. Legislation passed in 1943 provides for the filing of delayed Birth Certificates for persons who were born prior to the legislation date, or whose births were not recorded at the time of birth.

Mail requests take at least 3 weeks to process. Telephone requests for birth records, using a bank card, can be made by calling 303-692-2224. The charge is $16.50 and the record will be mailed within 5 work days.

Requests for status of a record search can be made by calling 303-756-4464. Fax requests for birth records using a bank card can be made by calling 1-800-423-1108. The charge is $16.50 and the record will be mailed within 5 work days.

Make all requests directly to Bureau of Vital Statistics.


Dept. of Health Services
ATTN: Vital Records
150 Washington St.
Hartford, CT 06106

Birth records are indexed for 1948 to present. Records for 1896-1947 are available but not indexed.

Cost of Copy:


Bureau of Vital Statistics
State Board of Health
P.O. Box 637
Dover, DE

The BVS will accept bank cards for all record requests made by telephone at 302-739-4721.

Cost of Copy:

District of Columbia

Vital Records Branch
9th Floor
613 G. Street, N.W.
Washington, DC. 20001


Include the following information:

what record is needed
child’s full name
child’s sex and date of birth
certificate number (if known)
mother’s full maiden and married names
father’s full name
child’s place of birth (include the name of hospital)
money order number
Cost of Copy:
$12.00 (short form),
$18.00 (long form)


Office of Vital Statistics
Box 210
FL 32231

Cost of Copy:
$9.00 (additional copies are $4.00)


Vital Records Service
State Department of Public Health
Rm 217 H

47 Trinity Avenue,
Atlanta, GA 30334

Cost of Copy:
A certified copy of a birth record is $10.00.
Each additional copy released at the same time is $5.00 (all wallet size copies will be $10.00 no matter when ordered).


Office of Vital Statistics
Dept. of Public Health and Welfare
Government of Guam
Box 2816
Agana, GU 96910

Cost of Copy:


Vital Records Section
State Dept. of Health Box
Honolulu, HI 96801

Cost of Copy:


Bureau of Vital Statistics
State Dept. of Health
450 W. State Street
Boise, ID 83702

Idaho requires a release signed by the applicant or his/her representative for a certified copy.

Cost of Copy:
$8.00 for certified copy, $6.00 for verification


State of Illinois
Department of Public Health
Division of Vital
605 W. Jefferson
Springfield, IL 62702-5097

Requests for birth records can be made via telephone to 217-782-6553 using a bank card.

Cost of Copy:
Birth records $10.00 for computer-generated record, $15.00 for file copy (includes parents names and other identifying information). Each additional copy ordered with the original request is $2.00.


State Board of Health
1330 West Michigan St.
Room 111
Indianapolis, IN 46206-1964

Cost of Copy:


Iowa Dept. of Public Health
Vital Records Bureau
Lucas State Office Bldg.
321 E. 12th
Des Moines, IA 50319-0075

Birth certificates may be requested by phone at 515-281-4944, using Visa, Discover, or MasterCard.

There is a $5.00 surcharge for the service (in addition to the $10.00 fee for the certificate). The record is normally mailed in three work days. If FedEx service is requested, add $11.00 (for a total of $26.00).


Office of Vital Statistics
900 Southwest Jackson
Topeka, KS 66612-1290

Birth records are available from July 1911 on. Applicant-signed request must accompany payment. Expect a response in 7-10 days; one-day service on charge card requests and for certified mail requests when stamp plus $1.00 enclosed.

Cost of Copy:


Office of Vital Statistics
State Dept. of Health
275 East Main Street
Frankfort, KY 40602

Cost of Copy:


Louisiana Division of Vital Records
Bureau of Vital Statistics
Box 60630
New Orleans, LA 70160

Signed consent forms are needed for release of birth certificates. Requests can be faxed to 504-568-5391 if using a charge card.

Cost of Copy:


Office of Data, Research and Vital Statistics
32 Winthrop St. State House,
Station 11
Augusta, ME 04333-0011

Requests for records, using a bank card, can be made via telephone to 207-289-3184. Additional certified copies of the same record requested at the same time are $4.00.

A certified copy of a delayed birth certificate (BC), new BC as a result of an adoption or legitimization of registrant or amended BC for processing court ordered legal name changes are $20.00 each. Make all personal checks or money orders payable to “Treasurer of State.”

Cost of Copy:


Department of Vital Records
Metro Executive Building
4201 Patterson Avenue
Baltimore, MD

Cost of Copy:


Dept. of Public Health
Registry of Vital Statistics
150 Tremont Street, Rm B3
Boston, MA 02111

The State BVS accepts charge card requests for birth records only. Call 617-727-0036. There is a $19.00 fee. Cost of Copy: $6.00 if request is made in person, $11.00 if request is made by mail and $14.00 if expedited two-day service is requested.


Vital Statistics Section
Dept. of Public Health
P.O. Box 30195
Lansing, MI 48909

Additional copies of the same birth record requested at the same time are $4.00 each. Except for Detroit, a recent birth record can more quickly be obtained from the appropriate city or county clerk.

However, records for adopted children before 1980 or illegitimate children before 1979 are available only from the Vital Statistics Section. Telephone requests can be made, using a bank card for payment, for any record by calling 517-335-8666.

Cost of Copy:


Minnesota Dept. of Health
Section of Vital Records
P.O. Box 9441
Minneapolis, MN

Requests for birth certificates for illegitimate children must be accompanied by a consent statement signed by the subject individual (if 18 or over) or by the parent or guardian.

Cost of Copy:


Division of Public Health Services
State Dept. of Health
Box 1700
Jackson, MS 39215-1700

The cost of a full copy is $7.00 if the birth occurred less than 1 year before the request. Abstract copies of birth records are $7.00 for all years.

Cost of Copy:
$12.00 (long form), $7.00 (short form)


Bureau of Vital Records
Dept. of Health
P.O. Box 570
Jefferson City, MO 65102

Cost of Copy:


Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences
Vital Records and Statistics Bureau
1400 Broadway
Helena, MT 59620

Telephone requests for birth records, using a bank card, are accepted by calling 406-444-4228.

There is an additional charge of $5.00 for this service. The State also charges a $10.00 per hour (or fraction thereof) fee to search the index of adoption processing records or the delayed birth certificate (DBC) filing records.

If the State locates the adoption or DBC, a certified copy of the adoption of DBC record will be provided at no additional cost.

Cost of Copy:


Bureau of Vital Statistics
State Dept. of Health
P.O. Box 95007
Lincoln, NE 68509-5007

Request processed within 7 days.

Cost of Copy:


Dept. of Health & Welfare
Division of Health
Bureau of Vital Statistics
Kinkead Building, 1st Floor
505 E. King Street
Carson City, NV 89710

Cost of Copy:

New Hampshire

Bureau of Vital Records
Health and Welfare Bldg.
6 Hazen Drive
Concord, NH

Telephone requests, using a bank card, can be made for any record by calling 603-271-4650 or 603-271-4652.

Cost of Copy:
$10.00 (additional copies $6.00)

New Jersey

State Dept. of Health
Bureau of Vital Statistics
CN 370
Trenton, NJ 08625-0370

Requests for records, using a bank card can be made by calling 609-633-2860. There is a $5.00 surcharge for this service.

Cost of Copy:

New Mexico

Vital Records & Statistics
Dept. of Health
1190 St. Francis Dr.
P.O. Box 26110
Santa Fe, NM 87502

Cost of Copy:

New York

New York State Dept. of Health
Bureau of Vital Statistics
Empire State Plaza, Tower Bldg.
Room 244
Albany, NY 12237

Signed consent forms are needed for release of birth certificates.

Requests for all records, using a bank card, can be made by calling 212-788-4505 through 212-788-4511 for NYC or 518-474-3038 for NY State. There is a surcharge for this service.

Cost of Copy:

North Carolina

North Carolina Office of Vital Records
P.O. Box
Raleigh, NC 25626-0537

Births were first recorded beginning October 1913.

Cost of Copy:

North Dakota

Division of Vital
Records & Statistics
Dept. of Health
State Capitol
600 E. Blvd.
Bismarck, ND 58505-0200

DVR will accept bank cards for birth record requests made by telephone to 701-224-2360. Requests for birth certificates for illegitimate children must be accompanied by consent statement signed by the subject individual (if 18 over) or by the parent or guardian.

Cost of Copy:

Northern Mariana Islands

Registrar Superior Court, Vital Statistics
Box 307
Saipan, MP

Birth records are generally available since November 21, 1952. Roman Catholic Church records of births since 1900 are available from individual parishes.

Cost of Copy:


Vital Statistics
Ohio Dept. of Health
P.O. Box 15098
Columbus, OH 43215-0098

If the claimant’s year of birth is unknown, the fee is $7.68 for each 10-year period to be searched. No records available prior to 1909.

Cost of Copy:


BVS State Dept. of Health
P.O. Box 53551
Oklahoma City, OK 73152

Cost of Copy:


State Health Division
Vital Records Unit
P.O. Box 14050
Portland, OR

Telephone requests for all records, using a bank card, can be made by calling 503-229-5899. Such requests require an additional charge of $10.00.

Cost of Copy:


Division of Vital Statistics
State Dept. of Health
Box 1528
New Castle, PA 16103

Birth records will be furnished free to veterans, their spouses and dependents if the veterans name, serial number, rank and organization are provided.

The veteran or dependent must sign the request and have the certificate sent to his/her mailing address. The DVS will accept telephone requests for birth records, using a bank card, by calling 412-656-3100.

Cost of Copy:

Puerto Rico

Division of Demographic Registry and Vital Statistics
Dept. of Health
San Juan, PR 00908

The Municipal office has records since July 22, 1931. Show claimant’s maternal and paternal surnames (e.g., Gonzalez-Gomez) on all requests for birth records.

Cost of Copy:

Rhode Island

Health Dept.
Room 101
3 Capital Hill
Providence, RI

Birth certificates for illegitimate children can be obtained only with the written consent of the person named on the certificate, if an adult; or the written consent of a parent or guardian, if the person named is a minor.

Expedited mail requests are processed within one week. Same day service is available to non-residents who call 401-277-2812 and use Visa.

Cost of Copy:
$12.00 ($17.00 for expedited mail requests)

South Carolina

Bureau of Vital Statistics
State Board of Health
2600 Bull
Columbia SC 29201

No search for a birth record will be made if the mother’s name is not shown on the request.

Cost of Copy:
$8.00 (additional copies are $3.00 if requested at the same time)

South Dakota

Department of Health
Office of Vital Records
445 E. Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501-3185

Records were first kept in SD beginning 1905.

Cost of Copy:
$7.00 (or call 605-773-4961 to use Visa/MasterCard; $5.00 service fee)


Division of Vital Statistics
State Dept. of Public Health
C3 Cordell Hull Office Bldg.
Nashville, TN 37246-0350

Only long forms are prepared for birth records before 1950. Expedited service fees which must be paid by charge card are: o expedite $8.40
Overnight $18.90 on weekdays $28.90 on weekends

Cost of Copy:
$5.00 (short form), $10.00 (long form), Additional copies of records are $2.00


Bureau of Vital Statistics
State Dept of Health
1100 West 49 St.
Austin, TX 78756-3191

If expedited service is required, the claimant may send the information by FAX to BVS at 512-458-7711 using VISA or MasterCard bank cards only.

The cost of this service is $5.00 plus $11.00 for the birth certificate and $5.00 for same or next day response by Airborne overnight mail (total of $21.00), overnight express mail requests are also accepted and processed within 24-48 hours by BVS.

Cost of Copy:
$11.00 (additional copies are $3.00)

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

Belau (Palau)
Clerk of Court
Western Caroline Islands 96940

Courts have records beginning November 21, 1952.

Cost of Copy:


Bureau of Vital Records
288 North 1460 West Temple
P.O. Box 16700
Salt Lake City, UT 84116-0700

Telephone requests for birth records, using a bank card, can be made by calling 801-538-6380.

Cost of Copy:


Public Records Division
60 Main St.
P.O. Box 70
Burlington, VT 05402

Public Records Division
133 State St.
Montpelier, VT 05633
Code 024

Birth records are available for the current year and approximately the previous 10 years in Burlington.
Records before that time are in Montpelier.

Cost of Copy:

Virgin Islands of the U.S.

Bureau of Health Planning and Statistics
Dept. of Health
Old Hospital (Municipal Hospital)
St. Thomas, VI 00802

The above address is for records from St. Thomas and St. John. Birth and death records for St. Croix may be obtained from Registrar of Vital Statistics Charles Harwood Memorial Hospital Christiansted, St. Croix, VI 00820.

Cost of Copy:


Division of Vital Records
State Dept. of Health
James Madison Building
Box 1000
Richmond, VA 23208-1000

Cost of Copy:


Dept. of Health
Vital Records
P.O. Box 9709
Olympia, WA 98504-9709

Birth records are available beginning July 1, 1907. If a birth certificate issued by the State office does not contain the recordation date, assume, absent information to the contrary, that the record was made soon after birth.

Cost of Copy:

West Virginia

DHHR Vital Registration Office
Capital Complex
Bldg. 3 Rm 516
Charleston, WV 25305

To expedite the birth request, show the appropriate type of document requested as part of the address line after DHHR, Vital Registration.

The DVS will accept telephone requests for all records, using a bank card, by calling 304-558-2931. These is an additional charge of $10 for this service.

Cost of Copy:


State Department of Health and Social Services
Division of Health
Center for Health Statistics
1 W. Wilson St.
P.O. Box 309
Madison, WI 53701-0309

All payments should be made payable to “Center for Health Statistics.” The request should also include a postage-paid, preaddressed return envelope.

Cost of Copy:


Vital Records Services
Hathaway Building
Cheyenne, WY 82002

Cost of Copy:

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Welcome to the second part of the Identity Hoping series! This article will cover more of the forging aspect of identity fraud then the actual ‘hoping’, as the actual article did. For the most part, you want to use these documents that you can purchase through the mail to get real state-issued ones… The nice thing about getting fraudulent identities it that once it starts it can grow on it’s own and doesn’t need to be nurtured. Almost all of the companies listed below are still open (I say almost because if I say all, one if bound to close) so you should have little trouble with them. I include the address’s mainly because you will want to write and get a brochure from them… It’s one thing to trust my rating of the documents, it’s another to just blow your money.

For this file we will assume there are three types of alternate ID’s: forged, borrowed, and created. Each type is better for a different type of situation, and they all have their own inherent weaknesses, unless done properly. This file will cover primarily Forged ID’s, although we will touch briefly on Created ID’s as well. For more information on Borrowed, please refer to part one of this series.

Forged ID’s are still in use today to some degree, although they are mainly used to either help in the ability to drink sooner, or soon other rite of society. These can also be used in a lower level for credit card fraud, and many other types of fraud, as well as to back up a created identity quickly and easily. This use has recently been hampered by the introduction of new ID technology. This is bad in ways, but it’s uses are far from over… Just because California has adopted Credit Card DL’s, doesn’t mean that Oregon has, and what Oregon doesn’t know/do, can only help you!


Below is a listing of mailorder ID companies, after the name of each company will be a number (from 1 to 10, 10 being highest) rating the quality of the ID’s or whatever the specific company sells. Most of them will send you a free catalog if you send them a SASE (a self-addressed stamped envelope, for all the worthless people who didn’t know what that meant), but don’t expect fast service from any of these (except NIC, who is exceptionally good). For the most part all of these companies are the sort of grey-area companies that only last for a couple years in the fun world of legitimacy, so they might be here today, but most likely gone tomorrow.

PO BOX 444
Rating: 5

Special Forces, Swat, Mercenary, etc… The only thing that really sets this company apart is the quality & selection of Badges & Patches.

Rating: 7

This company offers a wide selection of cards, and most of them are very well made.

1) Instructor
2) Comp Supervisor
3) Sales Rep.
4) General Manager
5) Employee ID
6) Counselor
7) Press Card
8.) Reg. Nurse
9) City Employee
10) US ID
11) US Veteran
12) Social Security Card
13) Researcher
14) Long Haul Operator
15) College ID Cards
16) Talent Scout
17) Detective
18) Bartender
19) Cosmetologist
19A) University ID Card

That’s it for ID’s, Now onto Certificates….

20) Birth
21) Baptismal
22) College Diploma
23) High School
24) Awards
25) Wills
26) Marriage
27) Divorced
28) Judo Instructor
29) Karate Instr.
30) Bachelor of Arts
31) Dr. Theology
32) Trade School 1
33) Trade School 2
34) Bartender
35) Scuba Diver
36) Hypnosis
37) Dr. of Music
38) Hang Gliding
39) Dr. of Sociology
40) Dr. of Philosophy
41) Veterinarian
42) Photographer
43) Parachutist
44) Color TV Repr.
45) Child Care Spec.

Rating: 6

All this person sells is a two-piece photo ID card with any state name you want typed on. One nice feature of this card is it has a spot for both a Signature, DOB, and ID number…

PO BOX 5200
Rating: 7

This company sells very nice blank certificates with a very real looking gold seal. They also sell ID’s, but they saw ‘NOT A GOVERNMENT DOC’ all over.

Rating: 9

If you want to fake like you’re a priest, this is the place to by the Certificates. They make you minister for the ‘Ministry of Salvation’, or the ‘Victory New Testament Fellowship’.

PO BOX 2940
Rating: 7

This place sells State Name ID cards which are very nice. They even have a color bar behind the state name. Only drawback is there is no ID # space.

Rating: 5

This company sells decent bogus press cards. As of this writing they only have three different models, but claim to have more on the way soon.

PO BOX 40188
Rating: 10

This place has one of the best Birth Certificates and University Certificates I have seen around. They have a wide selection, and I would suggest writing for a catalog from this company.

2400 W COAST HWY M-38
Rating: 9

This place is pretty lame other than they have a California Drivers License that looks JUST LIKE the old one!

PO BOX 40201
Rating: 10

Probably one of the most interesting things in here, this company sells supporting docs for a completely fake country! From Passports to Birth Certs.

PO BOX 1625
Rating: 6

They sell some fairly nice ID’s, especially fake Police/Sheriff kits! Do not confuse this with the Delta Press that makes books…

PO BOX 18205
Rating: 9

This sells some really hot Photographer ID’s and some of the same Press cards everyone else has. One nice thing this place sells though is complete credential kits…

PO BOX 557
Rating: 10

This place sells some AWESOME Delayed certificates of Birth, Social Security Cards, and a great copy of the Oklahoma Drivers License!

Overall there isn’t too much in the way of differences between the cards these companies supply. They all are forced to be processed in about the same method and therefore don’t leave much room for deviance. Almost all the companies I listed don’t include the shit phrase ‘NOT A GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT’, but this could change any day, so don’t count on it… Check it out first.

Don’t let the name scare you away, this company has the WIDEST selection of ID’s of any company I’ve come across, and they are all very high quality… How good you ask? Well, good enough for the company to get it’s own listing in here! They sell everything from Books (like Paladin Press sells), to police badges, to certificates, to bulletproof briefcases, to great ID kits. Here’s a list of what they sell in the way of Certificates and ID’s. This company is one of the very few that accepts Visa or MC, but they are very wise to the ways of fraud, so don’t waste their time or yours and just buy the damn things!


(P46) Private Detective
(P47) Private Investigator
(P48) Security Consultant
(P49) Special Investigator
(P50) Bodyguard
(P51) Exec. Bodyguard
(P52) Special Agent
(P53) Weapons Specialist
(P54) Sabotage & Demol.
(P55) Special Operations
(P56) Professional Merc.
(P57) Pheonix Program
(P58) Military Intel.
(P59) US Army Sniper
(P60) Intel. Officer
(P61) British Intel.
(P62) Israeli Intel.
(P63) Press Assoc.
(P64) Pro Photographer
(P65) Boudoir/Figure Photo.
(P66) Scuba Certificate
(P67) Pilots Cert.
(P68) Parachutist, Cert.
(P69) Ordained Minister
(P70) Air America Pilor
(P71) Organized Crime Bureau
(P72) Bounty Hunter
(P73) Police Sniper
(P74) Anti-Terrorist Expert
(P75) Homicide Invest.
(P76) Underco. Narcotics


(F01) American Press Assoc
(F04) Bounty Hunter
(F11) Private Investigator
(F02) Bodyguard
(F14) Org. Crime Bureau
(F10) Firearms Dealer
(F12) Security Consultant
(F34) Special Identification
(F41) Intel. Officer
(F13) Special Investigator
(F03) Security
(F35) Special Agent
(F20) Pro Photographer
(F08) Special Weapons Permit
(F09) Supp. W. Permit
(F07) Weapons Specialist
(F18) Pilot
(F05) Exec. Bodyguard
(F06) Registered Merc.
(F33) Ordained Minister
(F30) Company President

identity-hopping For 24 hour ordering 318-222-2970

One note of Folios, these are AWESOME! They are the best looking ID’s you’ll EVER find, they are two-piece ID’s that are identical to the ones this company (yup, they supply the government) supplies the government with! Hows that for HOT! When ordering these you need to tell them what info to put on, because these are totally custom and they write you’re name on them for you! Everything I have gotten from this company I’ve been really pleased with, and they have a guarantee that is AWESOME as well. If you fuck up on the ID some- how, just send a SASE with the messed up on in it, and they’ll replace it for FREE! How’s that for a deal! The Specialty Cards this company makes are also VERY nice, and most have room left open for DOB, SSN, etc… One other nice feature about this company is that most of the cards are multi-color, which adds to the realism, and some of them have information written on both the front AND back. This company will also make custom ID’s to match any specifications, all you need do is send in a photocopy of the original, and tell them the info to put on it. The wait is usually around 48 hours and there is an additional charge of five dollars… Not much considering. These can be customized to look like just about anything, from a Police ID to a fake Mickey Mouse Fanclub Membership.


There is an interesting little company based in Redwood City, California that issues yearly a little book that shows detailed color photo’s and other information on drivers license’s for all 50 states! The companies called ‘Driver’s License Guide Company’, and they will sell to anyone with money! Many DMV and Highway Patrol officers subscribe to this book and use it to tell if it’s a fake or now… Well, we all know that is a two way street!


Below is a list of companies that make machines which produce ID’s. These companies will not be too pleased if you call up and say “Do you sell machines to make fake ID’s?”. Alot of these companies are the ones who actually supply the government with their ID making machines (like Polaroid), and just remember, your home make ID can say and look like anything you want…


Agfa-Gevaert Corporation — Teterboro, NJ
BAI Corporation — Stanford, CT
Bello ID Systems, Inc — West Haven, CT
Bogen Photo Corporation — Englewood, NJ
Caid, Inc — Dover, DE
Calumet Photographic, Inc — Elk Grove, IL
Clarion Corporation — Bethesda, MD
COE Manufacturing Co. — El Toro, CA
Computer Identification Systems — Sacramento, CA
DecTech International, Inc — Van Nuys, CA
Data Card Corp. — Minneapolis, MN
Datatype Corp. — Greenwich, CT
DEK Products — Ft. Wayne, IN
Doculam, Inc — Memphis, TN
Electro Photo Systems, Inc — Anaheim,C CA
Faraday National Corp. — Herndon, VA
Graphic Lamination Corp. — Cleveland, OH
I Data Corp. — New York, NY
Identicard Systems, Inc — Lancaster, PA
Identimation Co. — Northvale, NJ
Identification Products Mfg. C — o. Libertyville, IL
Identification Service Corp. — New York, NY
Identification Systems, Inc. — Acton, MA
Identitronics, Inc — Elk Grove Village, IL
Laminex Industries, Inc — Matthews, NC
Polaroid Corp — Cambridge, MA
Royal Copier Products — Englewood, NJ
Saxon Business Products — Miami Lakes, FL
Western Data Products — Los Angeles, CA

They basically process the information in two ways; One type makes a one piece ID, with everything transferred over to a photo (like the Polaroid, this is the same machine California used to use before switching over to those damn credit card ID’s), the other way is to just glue the picture onto the paper and then laminate. A good cop will be able to tell a fake from the real thing fairly quickly, so be wary…


These are great little things that you can usually easily get, but are not enough to support a fake identity… But, without these, a fake identity will seem shallow, so you will always want to have at lease two or more of these in your wallet at all times…

BUSINESS CARDS – For around $20 you can get 500 cards printed up with any- thing from President on down written on them. These are usually accepted readily, after all, who would bother to print up fake business cards?

LIBRARY CARD – These are extremely easy to get, normally requiring two forms of identification. They add respectability to you.

SCHOOL ID’S – You can usually get these with one or no ID, by simply signing up for a class at the start of a semester.

SS CARDS – Social Security Cards are steadily becoming the national identifier, whether or not we want them to be.

RETURN IF LOST – These come free with the wallet and are GREAT to fill out with your fake info, after all, if it were a fake, why would you fill this out?

PHOTOGRAPHS – Always carry photographs of you wife, your children, your dog, someone else’s wife, someone else’s children, etc…

MEMBERSHIP CARD – These can be obtained either by joining a heath club or other organization. Unusually these will require 1 ID…

INSURANCE CARDS – These are great and usually very easy to get. Many comps will send you a very nice credit card type card when you send them asking for more information.

PERSONALIZE – Personalizing the wallet is probably THE best apparent/ subtle method of substantiating your claims. After all, who other than the owner would have a monogrammed wallet?


In most cases, with a forged social security card, or birth certificate, it is beneficial to age the document, since how many people do you know that own one that just came off the printing press? There are many methods to do this, but here are two of the easiest.

First, after the certificate is completed, and the ink dry, let it sit in direct sunlight for about one day. Then take the document and dip it in water, then returning it to it’s previous position. Wait around seven to ten days and the document will have the appearance of aging considerably.

Second, and probably a little better (but works best when done first and then followed with step one (minus the water part)), is to make a weak tea solution, and letting it soak in there until the desired color is attained. After this then fold it several times and it will make very aged looking creases’.

When numbering a birth certificate, remember to use the proper tools of the era for which the certificate was issued. So if you’re doing a pre-1980 one (which I am assuming, since you have a grasp of reading) then you will not want to use a new typewriter, but an IBM Selectric (which was the government stand. before 1980). Also you will not want to use a ball point pen on the document, since these also were not created at this particular point in time. You must always take these into account, because as fate would have it you’ll end up getting the only smart government employee in the world!


Because in the discrepancy and relative ease of forgery, most government agencies will not accept a birth certificate or photocopy of one unless it has impressive documentation that it is a certified copy and/or filed by the county clerk. Passport agencies will normally not accept a copy unless it has an embossed seal from the state or county it was issued from.

People rarely will take the original birth certificate with them, usually they will have certified photocopy of the document. What this means is that the government certifies that this is a legal document… Wow. Ok, usually this is an imbossed stamp with the state’s seal in the center of the stamp. There is NO standard format for certificate stamps, and every county in the United States has a different one, so who’s to know if Bumfuck, TX’s stamp looks like a smiley-face or not? There is no way for them to verify the authenticity of the stamp unless they have access to the county that certified it and can compare stamps. Rubber stamps can be purchased from any small print shop with the words ‘Certified’ or ‘County Clerk’ embossed on them, then you simply stamp the document and wala, it’s legal!

If someone wants to take this a step further in security, he can physically go to the court house and pay to have a document certified… This usually costs around five dollars, and they simply stamp the document. This will give you a copy of the real state seal to work from. Then it is possible to make a stamp or embosser to match it, although this is an extreme measure and really is probably unnecessary.

Original birth certificates or blank birth certificates can be purchased from a number of source around the country (refer to the above listing of companies). One GREAT note is that purchasing or selling blank birth cert’s IS COMPLETELY LEGAL! It is not a government document but simply a piece of paper that could conceivably be used by a hospital or doctor for it’s intended purpose. If the identity is not used to defraud anyone, especially the government, the simple use of another name is not illegal. Many people in their professional lives including writers, actors, hackers, real estate agents, etc legally create and use these aka’s or pen names without any attempt at govern- mental permission.

The old method of finding some child that is the given age, and that died is no longer valid or safe. The government knows this scam all too well, and you will get burned if you attempt it. They now cross-reference over 60% of the birth/death certificates, to almost stamp this ouw. Plus the also reference the use of a birth certificate, so if you are using Joe Doe, and so is someone else, and you both apply for a passport… It will be more than a postman who delivers it to you!


Passports are probably the most secure for of ID you’ll run across, and thank God we don’t need to forge them that often. They are almost impossible to copy without some of the best technology around, and if you are thinking of applying for one off of a fake identity, forget it. They check far to closely and far too hard for even most of the best to withstand. As far as I’m concerned I just chalk that up as a loss…

There is, however, a costly but very complete answer to this problem… Costa Rica (one of the last great grey-countries) will issue you a valid passport if you by $10,000 in land, and pay taxes on an income of $500 a month to the Costa Rica government (CR is a marvelous country that has no wars, no army, and a poor but democratic society). To apply for the passport, contact a Costa Rican attorney or write to:

Lel Punto Costarricense S. A
Post Box 90
Paseo Estudintes
Costa Rica

Now one of the REAL side benefits to this is if you happen to get busted, you will simply be extradited back to Costa Rica, only to be set free! There is also a company (for a much more reasonable fee) called the International Documentation Commission, located at:

1012 – 14th St NW
Suite 1101
Washington, DC 22005

For $35 they issue a 42-page passport valid for three years, and for $60 a passport valid for seven years. They have issued over 2500 such passports, and their passports are accepted in a case-by-case method in over 110 countries. These countries are not North America or Europe, but mainly third world nations (which always seem to border on the country you want to go to!).


I will not spend all together too much time on these, you can however find out some great information on the structure of SSN’s in my file Carding My Way part 3. For the most part these can be easily attained and/or forged since they are just a piece of paper, with no hidden lines or stamps, they are just a number. And the beauty of the matter is the only one who knows what number is who’s is the government, so this means the only way you could get fucked by using a fake one is either at a job, or at a bank come the first of the year when they send in all the client information. What this means is if you tell TRW that Joe Doe is 555-11-2222, then that IS what Joe Doe’s number is to the rest of the world. Business’s, Hospitals, etc have no way of checking the validity of what you are saying, only by the paper you show them…


In most cases you really don’t want to forge a drivers license, what you want to do is forge all the information you give them, then apply for a real one… This way you will get one that will pass even the closest scrutiny (of course, it’s real). Several methods are described below…

One way is to take those temporary paper DL’s they assign you when you are waiting to receive your real one, and use a laser printer to forge a fake one with the stat’s you want. Then take this fake one down and ask what is taking so long with your ID being send… Well, needless to say they won’t be able to find your file, and will re-take your photo, soon you’ll be receiving a wonderful new life…

One of the more riskier methods is to forge another states ID, and then use it to apply for an ID in the state you dwell in… Most of the time they will accept this without any other forms of ID, and then you’re ready to go! Another way which is along the same lines as the above methods is to use an out-of-state temp license to get a temp. extension in the state you’re in. This will be the same as the state you’re in, so you then go to the next city and turn it in for a real one!

It’s always a good idea to call ahead and find out what the DMV required in order to get an ID… The requirements vary greatly from state to state, and if you apply in a more rural city you will find them more willing to bend the rules for you.

Some good proof of identity (that is easy to forge) is the following:

School ID
Marriage Cert.
Insurance Papers
Bills w/ name on them
Employment ID
School Transcripts
US Passport
Business Cards

I should also point out that you are probably going to have to take the drivers test, so it would be a good idea to study that little book and make sure you have access to a car on the big day…


There is something called the Interstate Driver’s License Compact to which a little over half the 50 states belong to. This agency handles convictions of traffic violations primarily to assuage the insurance companies out-of-state convictions can get on the drivers license, upping his insurance rate. States which belong to the compact agree to confiscate any out-of-state license upon issuance of the license in a new state. It should be noted that most states do not return the licenses to the issuing state, they just destroy them. No cross-referencing as to the document itself occurs. What this means to you is that if you move from state A, to state B, make a forged copy of A’s DL, submit it to B and get B’s, they will confiscate a fake and you will be the proud owner of two real state ID’s, each with INDEPENDENT records! The only state I can think of off hand that doesn’t subscribe to the compact is California.

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How To Change Identity explains in detail how people use the borrowed identity fraud in these days. To start with you should know that are essentially three types of identities (other then the one you’re born with), and they are; Created, Forged, and Borrowed.

With created, you forge all the paperword needed to make the identity legal, and from that point on you are essentially that person for life.
With forged, you just create the minimal ID’s, instead of applying through the state.
With borrowed, which is what this file is concerned with, you take over another living person’s ID in order to abuse their specific credit.
From the point you transfer his identity over to you, you are him. If you don’t have a criminal record (and thus no fingerprints on record) you can really create a mess if caught with the borrowed stats, since they think they have him, not you, and look for him (but he looks like you (pretty wild, eh?)).

This project has many uses, all limited only by your imagination, and any given laws in your state.


In creating an maintaining an identity, the hardest part is to stand up to the background check. Since this usually delves fairly farther then the identity does, it shows quite well when a created one is used… This is not what you want. By abusing someone who already exists, you simply take advantage of the fact that with them, there definitely will be some sort of past, and that they are not wise enough to realize exactly what is going on. About the longest I’ve ever been able to control an assumed identity is around two to three months.

At around this point word starts getting back to the actual person and they quickly take steps to shut down all the work which you have so carefully done… But that’s ok, you should have already done your damage, and now it’s far too late for them to do anything of any consiquence… On to the next identity. It will on average take the normal Joe around five to six months total to realize just what has happened. You see, the last thing people expect is that someone is using their name and their ID and THEIR bank account for fraudulent ends… But hey, in this case ignorance is definantly not bliss! hehe…


You need some basic information about the subject who you wish to take over. The process to Change Identity is not easy, but I dont say that its every tough either.

Here’s a list of what you pretty much need and where you can get it.

* SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER – Checks and sometimes drivers licenses

_DRIVERS LICENSE NUMBER – Checks, drivers license, DMV

# DATE OF BIRTH – Checks and sometimes drivers licenses

* FULL NAME (AND MIDDLE) – Checks, drivers license, bills, phone co.


# MARITAL STATUS – Bank and phone co. (sometimes)

# CURRENT ADDRESS – Checks, drivers license, bills, phone co.

_PHONE NUMBER – Checks, bills (sometimes), phone co.

* – Can get from CBI (Equifax) pullups always.

# – Can get from CBI pullups sometimes.

[blank] – Can never get from CBI pullups.

CBI is probably the most widely used method, but as you can see, it will not supply you with all the infomation you need. When I list check or drivers lic. I mean this for people who work in stores and take checks. You all know that you write down a bunch of information off of the license on the back of the check, and this is probably one of the best sources. I have even been able to scam their maiden name this way as well! Of all the information you need, the mothers maiden name is perhaps the most important and hardest. This is used primarily by banks and credit companies, and is a real bitch. I have found the best way to either go into the bank and change the person’s by acting like you told them the wrong one, or by calling up the actual person and bullshitting it out of them.

The best thing about once you have a persons maiden name is that it doesn’t change and you can keep using it at least three or four more times.


You can always get a temporary license sent to you by the DMV by telling them that you lost the origional, and you’re on a trip out-of-state. They will usually have one to you in about five working days, and then you’re ready to have some fun. They require almost no proof of who you are over the phone (which is a real joke, eh?) and the most I ever was asked was when my birthday was. You can get almost all the information you need off of a normal CBI pullup, or from a friend if it’s someone who you know.

Sometimes you can get away with simply the name and address of the person. Now one note on these… No two states temporary ID is the same, which makes forgery of these a BREEZE! I will be releasing a rather large file around the first of the new year which will be around a meg zipped and will include high-resolution scans (800dpi, 24bit color) of almost all of the fifty states licenses, and temp ID formats. I’m sure you can come up with MANY,

MANY uses for something along this line, right? They’ll be in TIF format, to make them compatible with any decent system.

Once you forward this, it will give you alot more information about the subject then you already had, for example, his height/weight/eye color/hair color, etc. Then with this you can decide whether or not a complete takeover is truely fesible or not. There usually will be no problem if you just basically fit the description on the slip, like if he’s 5′-10″, and you’re 6′-10″ you’ll easily be able to take it over.

You also can sometimes get the DMV (Department of Motor Vehicles) to actually change some of the information to better fit you, like height or weight. I have been able to change the eyes and hair on rare occasions, and it’s always worth a shot. Just tell them something along the lines like “I think there was something wrong on my old one… What was my weight listed as?”, then just say “Yes, that’s it, I really 180, not 140.” If the height is for some reason way off, tell them you though it was supposed to be inches not feet/inches (this only works if you are shorter than the person in the ID, considerably).


The third step of How To Change Identity is the birth certificate. It is like the corner stone of the new identity, and is also one of the most important things that is easy to get. You need no ID to get this, simply say that you are the person. The easiest way to locate the person’s place of birth is by referencing the largest city in the state that their social security number was issued, or by the first address listed on the report (if you’re using a CBI pullup as a target). Call up the hall of records, which is where is will be located, tell them that you live out of state, lost your copy and need another notarized one. Usually they will send it with no hassles, although some cheap-lame states will make you send five dollars (almost never more), and a SASE… Cheap!

If all the government agencies operated like that there wouldn’t be a deficit! Anyways, then send it through our wonderful postal service, so it will usually take one to two weeks to recieve, but it’s well worth the wait.

I would recommend anyone who does this to save the birth certificate, or if you are really cool, send it to me so I can scan it and make it available for others to use (without the name, blank ones are much more valuable). Otherwise just keep them for reference, and for forgery (which will be covered in the second part of this great series).


This is usually easily gotten, by simply going down to the social security office in your town, with the birth certificate and telling them that your wallet was stolen and you need a replacement. Realize this, the SSN doesn not show or even indicate your true age, so you can in theory take over a much older persons identity (covered later on in the file). The will usually print up a new one for you right there and you’re ready to go.

If you wish to avoid this, you can usually get nice metal plates made that resemble a social security card, with any number you want engraved on it. This is usually done at like K-Mart-type places. Although I would recommend going along the normal paths, you can always do this if you feel to unsure or are using a forged birth certificate of shitty quality.


In this part of How To Change Identity you will learn how people obtain real photo licence. This is one of the more difficult parts of the takeover, and required that you successfully completed all four of the above steps. All you do is take the persons birth certificate and social security number down to the DMV, along with a letter the person’s state will supply you with that states you are moving from there, have lost your license, and verifies the information you have given. With all of the above fulfilled you should run into NO problems whatsoever in the DMV, and since these people are generally overworked and underpaid, they will let some minor mistakes slide easily.

Make sure that you have access to a car, since most state will require you to take another driving test, and also that you have all of the person’s information memorized, since it’s bad news if they catch on to you while you’re trying to get a hold of a government identification. I also would recommend that you keep a hold of these with the birth certificates and anything else you should happen to get. I will talk a little about this at the end.


Now for the profit part, and then the fun part of the How To Change Identity. Which is again the most difficult part, simply because you’re not dealing with the government employee’s any more… Although bank people aren’t paid or treated much better. About the only info a bank will require or ask (and not all will) is for your mothers (or more appropriately his) mothers maiden name. This is a real hard and pretty much has to either be extracted from the banks computers, from the real person, or by bullshitting some employee, although the former is VERY difficult.

Once you have this, simply ask for a replacement ATM card, flash that nice new state-issued ID and they’ll mail you off one in less than a week, with a copy of the real person’s PIN. And if this poor sap doesn’t have one, then get one… After all, you are him, so why not.

Also make sure to take over all of his banking and checking accounts. When you are pulling money out, make sure to never get more than $5000 per day, otherwise they have to notify the government, and this is one thing that you don’t want. Also the bank account and ATM card just are two more forms of ID for this wonder- ful identity… And should be kept safe with the rest of the paraphanalia.

You can also get the subject’s credit cards re-issued to you, and then also make sure to hook them up to the ATM, so you can get cash advances from them without having to deal with any real people. A little less than half of the ATM machines have real cameras, so just go around and scam out the ones that you know don’t. Ones which almost always don’t are those is ‘safe’ areas, like hospitals and in malls.

One more way to make cash with this new-found identity is to follow all the steps covered in the file ‘Bank Fraud’, by LE Pirate and released by cDc. Just use the real person’s bank account, and don’t stress on the ID, then that files idea works GREAT. Good thinking LE!


Now you essencially are for all intensive purposes this person, so you can do everything a person would normally do, such as apply for a car loan, in a no-title state (refer to my file ‘Auto Theft, a Practicle Approach’), drive it for a week or two, get the plates, then turn around and sell it for a nice profit to a local used car dealership. They usually will buy it with no problems and have no way of knowing who owns the car outright. Then just use the ID to cash the check at the issueing bank and wala… You just make a good $10,000 on like a $20,000 car. Try to choose common, easy-to-sell cars, like Mustang 5.0’s or Mazda Miata’s. Don’t get a Ferrari or Lotus, since no place will by it and it will look totally suspicious if you sell it low.

You have the guys credit cards, so spend! Jeez… Or just pull money out of the ATM until there isn’t shit left (my personal favorite).

You can also do a little twist on the idea of the car loan, and just take out a personnal loan from your (his) bank. Then just cash it and pocket the cash.


I have only been able to pull this off once, although I honestly haven’t tried it too often. What I did is took a forty-two year old guys Identity, and changed the birth certificate to say 1969 instead of 1949, then went to the DMV and made it look like some kind of computer mixup (and we all know how often those really happen, hehe). Then I got the guys drivers license, with my picture on it. I then went to the bank, and pulled the same trick on them (although they were to damn dense to even realize it!) and got the guys ATM/savings/checking/line of credit/credit cards. Needless to say, he had quite a good amount of credit which I used to the fullest exstent.

This is definantly more benifical, unless you’re like 30-40 and can take over people who have decent credit, but considerably more dangerous. Since not only are you dealing with forged documents, but ones which conterdict the ones which they have.


People do not keep all this stuff but if they want to refer to when needed… But NOT in your house. Use one of the identities, and get a safe-deposit box at a bank. Then, put all the info in it, including that identity papers. Then just put the key in a safe place… Since one of these identities will stay good essencially forever you have no need of worring that they discover the box, and it is almost impossible for them to connect it to you. Most nice banks even have killer private rooms for you to look over the papers, so you don’t even need to leave the bank! Some people just

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Burglars dislike noise – it attracts attention. A barking dog is the best deterrent in preventing burglaries. However, a watch dog cannot always be depended upon. Some professional burglars have been known to carry delectable “dog snacks” in their pockets – and with a full stomach, some watch dogs make friends easily and forget their purpose of guarding the premises. The most reliable safe-guard to protect your home and possessions is a reliable alarm. Now you must be thinking of How To Select A Burglar Alarm?

Many types of burglar alarms can be obtained for residential use. It is advisable, however, that basic hardware security measures be followed first.

If additional security is desired, the following recommendations could be helpful.

1. Obtain estimates from three alarm companies, notifying each of this procedure.
2. An audible alarm is recommended over silent alarms for residential use in order to first protect persons and secondly, property.

Don’t depend entirely upon an alarm system to protect you – be sure to use proper locking devices. Any alarm system should include:

A. A battery-powered fail-safe back-up.
B. Fire-sensing capability.
C. Read-out ability to check working of system,
D. Horn sounding device installed in attic through vent.

When shopping for an alarm system, take this list with you.


If the value of small personal items warrants protection, a secondary barrier is an additional safeguard. On a hinging closet door, install a 1″ dead bolt lock. Store your jewels, furs, cameras, guns, silverware and other valuables behind this barrier. Be sure to “pin” the hinges (as outlined in “How To Burglar-Proof Your Doors” – available in the same category.)

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Most burglars avoid attempting to break the following types of glass due to the fear of attracting attention:

LAMINATED GLASS is made by a vinyl or plastic interlayer sandwiched between two layers of glass. This type of glass adds additional strength to your windows. To gain entry, a burglar would have to strike the glass repeatedly in the same spot in order to make a small opening. Most burglars are reluctant to create this type of noise for fear of being detected.

TEMPERED GLASS is made by placing a piece of regular glass in an oven, bringing it almost to the melting point, and then chilling it rapidly. This causes a skin to form around the glass. Fully tempered glass is four to five times stronger than regular glass.

WIRED GLASS adds the benefit of a visible deterrent. Extra effort will be needed to break the glass and then cut through the wire located within the glass, in order to gain entry.

PLASTICS: Plastic material is divided into two types : acrylic or polycarbonate.

The acrylics are more than ten times stronger than glass of the same thickness and are commonly called plexiglass. Polycarbonate sheets are superior to acrylics and are advertised as 250 times more impact resistant than safety glass, and 20 more times than other transparent plastic.

With SLIDING WINDOWS the primary objective is to keep the window from sliding or being lifted up and out of the track. There are many manufactured products available for securing windows. Here are some of the suggestions:


It is not recommended that you lock a window in a ventilated position. This is an invitation to a prying action which can result in entry. Key locking devices offer no real security, and they can be a fire exit hazard.

CASEMENT WINDOWS are the simplest to secure. Make sure the latch works properly and that the “operator” has no excess play. If so, replace the worn hardware.

DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW latches may be jimmied open. If a window is not used, screw it shut (except bedrooms). For windows in use, drill a sloping hole into the top of the bottom window, through and into the bottom of the top window, and insert an easily removable pin or nail.

LOUVRE WINDOWS are bad security risks. Remove and replace with solid glass or other type of ventilating window in order to Burglar-Proof Your Window. Or protect with a grate or grille (except bedrooms).

WARNING: One window in every bedroom on the ground and second floor must be left available as a fire exit, particularly for children and guests in your home. At night, the bedroom window may often be the quickest and safest means of getting out. Because of the danger of fire, decorative grilles are not recommended on bedroom windows.

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How To Burglar-Proof Your Doors



Is an inexpensive lock set which keeps the burglar from simply slipping your door open with a plastic credit card. This method of entry is common in many areas, but very easy to prevent.


1″ deadbolt, single cylinder with hardened cylinder guard, and thumb turn.

For extra security, a single cylinder dead bolt lock, with one inch throw and case-hardened insert, is recommended for all exterior doors. If you have easily breakable glass within 40 inches of a deadbolt lock, it should be augmented with a stronger type of glass or plastic to provide adequate security.

Most police departments do not recommend deadbolt locks for residential use. You may be adding additional security at the expense of personal safety with a double cylinder dead bolt. For example, you could lock yourself in and not be able to escape in case of fire or other emergency.


Is a 1″ dead bolt lock which is installed on the inside surface of the door. It is less expensive than other types of locks, but equally effective for security.


Another lock which is installed on the inside surface of the door. But this lock has vertical dead bolts, which is an approved locking device.


1/2″ in diameter by 12″ high installed at the top & bottom of the inactive door offers minimum security. Many homes with pairs of doors, use half-barrel slide bolts on the inactive door. These are weak and totally inadequate.


Installed at the top and bottom of the inactive door or a pair of doors, flush bolts offer additional security, since the intruder cannot get at these devices to tamper with them if the doors are locked.


Some exterior doors are improperly installed so that the hinges are installed from outside.

To protect such a door from being lifted from its hinges by pulling the hinge pin, follow these simple steps:

(1) Remove two screws, opposite each other, from both leaves of the hinge.
(2) Insert screw or concrete nail into jamb leaf, protruding 1/2″.
(3) Drill out the opposing screw hole in the door. Do this in the top and bottom hinge of the door. When closed, the hinge pins may be removed, but the door will remain firmly in place.

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When leaving home, make sure that all doors and windows are locked – including the garage door.

To Protect Yourself On City Streets, watch for loiterers and do not carry large sums of money.

If possible, travel with another person. This is especially true after dark.

When carrying a purse, women should have only 3 or 4 one dollar bills placed inside. Credit cards, currency, driver’s license, keys and jewelry should be carried in a coat or sweater pocket or concealed on your person to reduce the opportunity of large losses. If you do carry a purse, don’t wrap the strap around your shoulder, neck or wrist. If your purse is grabbed, a strong strap will not yield easily and you may be injured. Some purse snatch victims have been thrown off balance & received concussions, broken hips, arms or legs. Don’t carry anything more valuable than you can afford to lose. Always leave all unnecessary credit cards at home. When you shop and carry a purse, put it in your shopping bag.

At night, travel only well-lighted and well- traveled streets.

Never hitchhike or accept rides from strangers.

Walk on the side of the street nearest to oncoming traffic. If accosted by someone in a car, run in the direction opposite the way the car is headed.

Beware of people who approach asking directions; keep a polite but safe distance.

A good suggestions for men is to carry a second wallet containing a few $1.00 bills and old expired credit cards, which are normally destroyed or discarded. If confronted at knife or gunpoint, give the suspect the second wallet and concentrate on a good physical description to help the police in making the arrest.

Upon returning home, particularly after dark, do not linger at the entrance of your residence. Make a quick check for mail or newspapers, and enter immediately. If you feel something is strange, don’t enter but go elsewhere and call for police assistance.

If you feel someone is following you, go to the nearest occupied residence or building, and ask for assistance.

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Foot Surveillance
My opinion of a good, general definition of Surveillance is: To surreptitiously determine the activities of a subject." This means following a subject without any suspicion, on their part, that you are following them.

Physical surveillance is one of the most common techniques used by investigators to obtain necessary information. Surveillance, or shadowing, involves following a person, both closely enough not to lose them (close tail), and far enough away to avoid detection (loose tail). Effective surveillance requires much practice and a good measure of patience since you may find yourself tailing someone for hours, or even waiting for them just to appear.

A couple of terms in surveillance that you should be aware of are "getting warm" and "being burned." "Warm" means that the subject suspects that you are following them, while "burned" means that the subject knows you are following them and knows who it is. Experts agree that losing a subject is better than "burning" a case since you can usually locate a subject again. But once they know you are following them, your case is finished.

One thing to remember when conducting surveillance is to blend in with the crowd. Don't carry any objects, such as a briefcase, cigar or umbrella (unless it's raining) that could distinguish you from others around you. In addition, it is rarely necessary to wear a disguise. Experts generally warn novices to avoid putting on a fake mustache or beard because, usually, they look fake. Make-up artists make good consultants if it should become necessary to disguise yourself.

If you want to change your appearance, you can do so by putting on or taking off a coat or hat. This is usually effective, but you also might want to carry a change of clothes in your car just in case. Having one or two pairs of glasses can also help.

Investigators often follow their subjects on foot and this surveillance method requires special techniques. The cardinal rule is "never lose sight of your subject." Sometimes, in heavy pedestrian traffic, this is easier said than done. In heavy traffic, follow your subject by about eight to nine feet, much farther if there is little or no other foot traffic. Walking on the opposite side of the street may be a good way to follow someone without risking detection.

If your subject turns around, just act natural; don't panic and don't make any abrupt movements like darting into an alley or quickly hiding behind some object. If possible, simply stop and look in a shop window and use the reflection in the glass to observe your subject. If that won't work, pass by your subject nonchalantly, stop a short distance ahead, look in a window and then take a casual look back toward your subject. But, it is a good idea not to meet their eyes since it will be easier for a subject to notice and remember you if your eyes briefly lock glances.

If your subject enters some public place like a restaurant, train, or bus, you will need to follow them inside. For these situations you will need to carry a sufficient amount of cash to cover your expenses. Credit cards can help in case your subject decides to take a train or plane to another city or state.

"Warm" subjects use a variety of tactics to discover if they are being followed. One way is to reverse their course of direction. Following on the opposite side of the street can help you avoid detection if your subject tries this. Walking around a corner and stopping suddenly is another method subjects use to catch investigators on their trail. If this happens to you, just keep on walking around the corner, then turn back when it's safe.

A subject might intentionally drop a piece of paper on the ground to see if someone picks it up. Other ways subjects spot a tail include slipping into public places like restaurants, theaters, or hotels and exiting immediately through another door. Getting on a subway, public transit, or bus and then jumping off just before the doors close is a common method. If this happens to you, just stay on until the next stop and hope you can find your subject again. Don't attempt to jump off with the subject.

Moving to a deserted area is an easy way for a subject to spot a tail since there is no concealment. In addition, a very suspicious subject may have another person around them acting as a lookout.

Some Surveillance Do's...

- Know as much about your subject as possible.

- Verify subject's address.

- Know the area where the surveillance will begin.

- Be properly equipped.

- Arrive early.

- When seated in a car, attract as little attention as possible.

- Watch subject's location carefully.

- Look ahead and anticipate anything.

- Watch the subject's rear closely. (the car, you fool)

- Keep intervening traffic under control when doing vehicle surveillance.

- Try to know beforehand the general direction that the subject will be heading.

Relax, take a deep, slow breath.
If, for example, your subject takes short trips to the same places at slow speeds everyday, your job will be much easier than if they are a fast and unpredictable driver who never visits the same place twice. If you know that the subject drives like a wild man, then you should consider a two-vehicle surveillance.

The type of vehicle you drive is important, as you do not wish to stand out. Your vehicle should be as similar as possible to other cars in the area. I have found that a later model two or four door sedan, or van, with a standard, non-flashy, neutral paint finish usually blends in nicely. Tan, dark, light blue, and white, are colors that don't call attention to themselves.

If you are working in an upper-class neighborhood, I would advise not using an older model car or rusty van as you would be drawing much attention to yourself. Whenever possible, use a newer model van as your surveillance unit.

Your vehicle should always be in excellent working condition and you should fill your gas tank before starting surveillance. It is very frustrating to have to stop because your gas gauge reads empty. You should have all your fluid levels and belts checked regularly. There is nothing worse than a vehicle that won't run right during a surveillance.

For vehicle surveillance that will last a few days, you might want to try switching units each day to avoid detection. Since you might not have more than one vehicle, you might borrow or rent a car or van from a low cost rental agency. Be aware that even if you are driving a rental car and your subject "makes" you, they could find out who you are through the rental agency. Therefore, you must use the same precautions as you would use driving your own vehicle.

Remember to keep essential equipment in your vehicle at all times. This includes flashlight, maps of the city and state, a camera, tape recorder, binoculars, and a packed overnight bag. Also, a pair of rubber-soled shoes will be of use if you have to leave the car and follow on foot.

Initiating the Surveillance

The way you begin your vehicle surveillance may decide the success or failure of your operation. Real-life surveillance is not like the movies where the surveillance vehicle parks across the street and starts up when the subject comes out. This is far too conspicuous and a deaf, dumb and blind subject probably would notice you.

It is much less risky to park down the block with a good telescope or set of binoculars. The surrounding geography may help you in this regard. Each new surveillance location usually has a perfect spot where the investigator can observe the subject come out to their car, and which also allows the investigator to follow the subject in any direction without concern.

If your subject is on a one way street, you may park just down the street or around the corner with a reasonable expectation that the subject will drive past you when they leave. This allows you to reduce your risk of detection when initiating surveillance.

Surveillance in progress...

While tailing a vehicle, keep at least one or two cars between you and the subject's car. Also, do not remain constantly behind the subject; change lanes often. Try not to appear fully in their rear-view mirror.

The distance between you and your subject will vary according to the traffic conditions and the type of area in which you find yourself. Dense city traffic requires you to stay very close to the subject. In rural areas you may have to keep a distance of hundreds of yards to avoid detection.

Always try to stay in the subject's blind spot whenever possible. This only works, of course, in city traffic and on roads that have more than one lane. The blind spot to the subject's right rear is usually the one allowing the least visibility.

Noticing whether the subject has a companion or is alone is important along with what the companion is doing. If the companion is turning their head around every few seconds, they may be watching for a "tail". Here you would have to be much more cautious.

Changing Appearances

While it is impossible to change a vehicle's appearance totally, there are some small things that can be done to reduce the sense of familiarity with it. The simple changing of positions by you and your partner(s) in the surveillance vehicle can modify your general appearance. Your partner can crouch down in the seat sometimes and you may even change your posture behind the wheel.

Also, you and your partner(s) could put on and remove caps and sunglasses. Depending on the weather you also can change coats or jackets. These things have a tendency to change the general appearance of the surveillance unit as a whole.


With experience, you develop some preplanned moves that allow you to stay successfully with your subject, even under difficult situations. But sometimes, pure luck and inspiration play their part too.

If, for some reason, the subject stops, parks, or turns a corner before you can do so, don't panic. Drive past the subject, make the first turn you can and continue following from there, or park in the first available spot if you find the subject has parked.

Other strategies and terms you need to know include "leap frog", or "sandwich tailing" and "paralleling." The sandwich tail, or leap frog, is where two investigators participate in the tail; "A" is in front of the subject and "B" is far enough behind the subject that they remain undetected. "A" radios to "B" to tell them when the subject turns or parks.

After a while, or if "A" loses the subject, "B" closes the gap. When "A" is in position behind "B", then "B" passes the subject and takes over "A" 's original position. Of course, "A" then assumes the rear position. When properly carried out, this technique lowers suspicion and may be used for an extended period.

Much more difficult, paralleling is when the investigator tails a subject in a vehicle on a street parallel to the one the subject is driving on. Usually, the investigator will check at each intersection to see if the subject is still following the same course. If the subject isn't there, that means they either stopped on the last block, or turned the corner. The investigator must then discover the subject's exact location as quickly as possible.

When tailing an unsuspecting subject who is driving fast, it is best to follow in the same lane. Never allow too many vehicles to get between you and the subject. This is especially true if the subject is traveling in the fast or left turn lane. Suddenly, the subject may turn onto a side street and, unfortunately, lose you due to heavy oncoming traffic.

Serious problems can arise when approaching traffic signals. Remember, you are not driving a police or emergency vehicle and are liable for any traffic infractions that you may incur. Erratic driving also can arouse the suspicions of your subject. If your subject does not suspect a "tail", it is not uncommon to follow the vehicle almost directly behind. This is especially advantageous in heavy, city traffic.

When approaching traffic lights at an intersection it is helpful to watch the pedestrian cross-walk signals. These let you know how fresh or stale your green light is. If the pedestrian signal shows a white or green light, you know that you have a fresh green light. You don't have to hurry as much to get through the intersection. But, if the pedestrian signal shows solid or blinking red, you have a stale green traffic light that could turn yellow at any moment. Here, you have to get through the intersection, behind or next to your subject, as soon as possible.

In residential areas, it is somewhat easy to maintain a "loose tail" and observe parked cars from a considerable distance with the use of binoculars. But, you must use extreme caution and never let anyone see you using binoculars. This will arouse enough suspicion for the neighbors to call the police.

When observing the subject and their associates, make complete detailed notes at the time or as soon as possible, noting complete descriptions of clothing and physical appearances. If appropriate, photograph what you see whenever possible, as photographic evidence is difficult to repute in a Court of Law. We will be discussing note taking and photography later in the book.

Perhaps you have prior information that your subject will be traveling to a specific location, such as another home, hotel or motel. If this is the case, you may not need to attempt to follow the vehicle. You might proceed ahead of them and locate an appropriate place of hiding before their arrival.

Night Surveillance

Night surveillance poses some problems, and also some relief from other problems. The lower visibility works both ways. It is harder for the subject to see who is following, but the investigator has more trouble keeping track of the subject's car.

One problem with night vehicle surveillance is that your headlights will be very visible from a long distance. This isn't a problem if there is other traffic because headlights look even more alike than tail lights, but in a rural area they stand out.

One solution is to have your headlights wired so that they can be operated independently from one another. (This may be illegal in some areas.) It is done usually with two toggle switches. When your subject goes around a corner, you simply turn off one of your headlights. If your subject should be paying attention, your vehicle will appear as a completely different one at night.

If the investigation is of considerable importance, then sophisticated equipment may be rented or purchased for the occasion. Such sophisticated equipment might include an electronic tracking device, night vision starlight scope or an expensive high-speed telephoto lens for the camera.

Extended periods of surveillance should be conducted by several different investigators because fatigue can play tricks on one's imagination. Remember to be well equipped and have fresh replacement batteries for the appropriate equipment. The greatest teacher in this type of investigation is experience. The more you attempt something, the more efficient you become.

Stakeout Surveillance
The Hollywood or television version of a stakeout is two men in a car parked some 30 feet away from the subject's premises, watching through the windshield. In real life, two men in a car might as well hang out a sign saying "Stake Out In Progress" because they would be that obvious. Usually a nervous neighbor will call the police.

Using a car as a fixed observation post is very amateurish, and is a method of last resort. Standing in a doorway is also conspicuous, although it may become useful when following a subject who goes into a building and will soon be coming back out.

Temporary Stakeouts

There must be a better way, and there is! A temporary stakeout works much better if you can blend in with other people in the area. One way of doing so is to go into a nearby cafe, store or restaurant. When you do this, the subject would have to pick you out of a crowd to "make" you. This is much more difficult than spotting a lone figure in a doorway.

Behavior is as important as physical surroundings. Your behavior must be appropriate for a given situation. That is why standing in a doorway or sitting in a parked car is so conspicuous. People don't normally stand in doorways unless it's raining or snowing or they're waiting for a bus. People normally park their car, lock it and leave. Anyone who sits in a car for more than a couple of minutes will stand out because it is not a normal thing.

One exception is a male-female team. They don't stand out if they sit in a car together. Anyone who sees them will interpret their behavior as that of friends or lovers, especially if they are talking. At night on a dark street they can avoid seeming out of place by hugging and kissing. Obviously, in the same situation and in most neighborhoods, a team of two men hugging and kissing would attract attention.

Setting up a temporary observation post is a matter of quick improvisation. Often, there are props available nearby. A shoeshine stand or a stand-up lunch counter is often nearby in a city. A telephone booth might be another prop. A gas station is yet another opportunity.

Using a phone booth for a few minutes' cover is more than just picking up the hand set and pretending to talk. It helps to have a notebook open and pretend to be writing. A briefcase is a useful prop for this situation. If the phone booth is occupied, even better. Simply stand next to it as if you are waiting to use the phone. This will enable you to look around and remain normal and less conspicuous.

If no props seem available, you might lift the hood of your car and appear to be working on your engine. A stalled motorist won't usually arouse suspicion, but this improvised maneuver shouldn't last for too long.

Semi-Fixed Stakeouts

Sometimes it's possible to establish a somewhat more permanent position for a stakeout. I mentioned cars being the worst possible choice for a stakeout, but other vehicles can be much better. Any vehicle that does not permit easy observation of the inside will do, when it blends in with the surroundings.

Vans and campers are very common surveillance vehicles and are ideal. If you can borrow or use a van, you will have a tremendous advantage. You might rent a van, but if you do so often, you might be better off buying one.

The ideal set up is a van with lightly tinted windows at the sides and back. Combine this with heavy, dark curtains over each window and an opaque curtain or partition between the front seats and rear compartment. The tinted windows prevent people from easily seeing that curtains are opening and closing. The curtains prevent you from being silhouetted. When there are two windows on opposite sides of the van, people can see you moving between them.

It is critical to remain back from the windows when observing, just as you would in a room. The interior of the van should be darker than the light level outside to make seeing in more difficult. Curtains also serve the purpose of keeping the van darker inside. If the stakeout takes place overnight, it's important to make sure no lights come on when any van door opens, as the slightest light might give you away.

The van windows should be clean, not only for observation, but to enable you to take clear photographs when the opportunity arises. When using camera or binoculars, be sure to remain far enough inside to avoid direct sunlight reflection from the lenses. A ray of sunlight can reflect very brightly if the angle is right, thus giving your presence away.

If you expect your stakeout to last a long time, it is good to prepare in advance. You should plan for food, drink and toilet facilities. If your van isn't camperized, you'll have to improvise. In a pinch, some granola bars and a canteen of water will do for a short while. A milk carton or jar might serve for urination unless you are staked out for more than twenty-four hours. Here, you should have a camper's porta-potti. It is important not to risk blowing the stakeout by leaving your post due to a call of nature.

If you have a camperized van, you can set your stakeout up in style. Presumably, you'll have a refrigerator or icebox, a stove, and even a toilet. This enables you to maintain the observation post for days at a time in comfort.In such a case, your main problems will be that of staying awake and avoiding signs of occupancy. You'll have to be careful about noise and be aware that any moving around inside the vehicle may make it rock. If anyone passes by and notices movement or talking, it could give you away.

Parking could be a problem. First, the vehicle must "fit in" and appear normal in the area. A lavish motor home seems out of place in a poor section of the city. A rusted "hippy van" doesn't fit very well into a middle or upper-class neighborhood. There may be local parking regulations that will impede your operation. Watch out for parking meters and time restricted parking zones.

Parking distance is important. People are less likely to pay attention to vehicles parked a block or two away than within a few yards of them. If the parking place is a logical one, such as a shopping center parking lot, your surveillance vehicle will remain psychologically invisible.

The Fixed Stakeout

The basic prerequisite for a fixed observation post is to know the territory. Knowing the layout of the area is important because it allows you to choose the best possible observation post. Knowing your subject's building and all its exits enables you to cover it best. It may be necessary to set up more than one observation point if you need to cover several sides of a building.

In certain instances you will need to rent a room or an apartment to carry out your surveillance. You'll want to keep your true purpose a secret from the landlord. They may talk to, or even be a friend of your subject.

Another danger is having the landlord think that you are doing something suspicious. Unless you behave fairly naturally, someone might suspect that you are dealing drugs or doing something illegal and bring in police surveillance or even direct questioning.

Most likely you will need to move in some equipment and supplies, even for the smaller stakeouts. Some of these items might be:

· food

· drink

· 35 mm. and/or Video Camera

· Binoculars or Telescope

· Misc. Electronic Equipment

While the sight of a person carrying a cooler or cardboard box doesn't ordinarily arouse suspicion, a pair of binoculars might. Remember to transport any optical or other specialized equipment in a box or bag to avoid revealing your true purpose.

Avoiding detection while at the observation post is essential. The first thing you should do upon entering the surveillance area is to draw all the blinds, curtains and drapes almost shut, and turn off any lights that are on. Set up your post so that you can see the target area while back from the window some distance. Never put your face close to the window or draw back the drapes to get a better view. Select your field of view and leave it that way.

You may use a small, weak flashlight at night if you are careful not to shine it out the window. Turning on the room lights in a residential neighborhood may seem normal during the night, but in a commercial area it would be a giveaway.

Rural Observation Posts

Wide open spaces give you more freedom but also expose you to easier observation by your subject or others. When selecting an observation post, you may choose a gully, rock formation or shrubbery. An important point is that you should choose a spot that gives you cover from all angles. Someone might come along, see you before you can hide, and blow your cover.

People living in rural areas usually know their neighbors and immediately spot anyone who doesn't belong. Thick woods usually give good cover. It may be necessary to approach the post at night to reduce the chances of detection by anyone. This may mean that warm clothing is necessary with food and drink.

Finding a place to leave your vehicle can be a serious problem. If there are no campgrounds nearby, it might be necessary to have a friend drive you to a point near your cover and drop you off.

It is most likely going too far to wear camouflage clothing and camouflage colors on your face. If anyone sees you it would immediately arouse suspicion. Much better is dark clothing and the removal of anything shiny, reflective or bright, such as a belt buckle.

Noise carries far on a quiet night, therefore, it is best to leave behind things that rattle or make noise such as coins and other objects. Choice of clothing material is important too, because some fabrics, such as nylon, are noisy when rubbed against brush. Dacron or cotton, and even wool, is much better.

In an extreme situation it may become necessary to dig a foxhole and camouflage it with branches. If this does become necessary, it is best to dig at night and have all loose soil and other evidence of digging covered up or scattered by first light.

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There are many different needs for the use of surveillance. In this article we will discuss the different techniques used mostly for worker’s compensation, insurance defense or domestic investigation. Should a need arise for retail surveillance in which apprehension of a shoplifter or a person suspected of shoplifting some of the techniques to be discussed can be applied. In the event you have an occasion to conduct retail surveillance we suggest caution, planning and education as a necessary part of your planned surveillance procedure. There is a major difference you will encounter in this retail surveillance as opposed to the three types of surveillance we will be concentrating on in this manual. The major difference is personal contact with the subject under surveillance. You must be prepared for possible physical confrontation in retail surveillance. Although this may happen occasionally, personal or physical confrontation is a rare occurrence in worker’s comp, insurance defense or domestic surveillance if the surveillance is conducted properly.

Terms and definitions used in this article:

Target: The person, place or thing under surveillance.

Operative: The person conducting surveillance.

Contact: Any person the subject meets or confers with.

Convoy: A person employed by a subject to detect surveillance. Usually done by following the subject.

Decoy: A person who attempts to divert the operative’s attention from the subject.

Burnt: Term indication that the subject has discovered the identity of an operative.

Stationary surveillance: The target is not expected to become mobile.

Mobile surveillance:  The target is moving, either walking or in a vehicle.

Surveillance is the systematic observation of person, places, or things to obtain information.  Surveillance is generally carried out without the knowledge of those under surveillance and is concerned primarily with people. Simply, surveillance is conducted in hopes that the activity, whatever the purpose of the surveillance, will occur.  

Surveillance is conducted in one of two techniques either stationary or mobile. Mobile surveillance is conducted in one of two techniques either on foot or in a vehicle. One or all of these techniques of surveillance may be used on a surveillance to accurately document the target’s movements either by personal observation, photographs or video.

Regardless of the technique of surveillance to be conducting the objective is the same, to gather and document information for personal knowledge or courtroom testimony.

The most common technique of surveillance employed by private investigators is a combination of stationary and mobile. Stationary because the subject has not moved or has not made an appearance before mobile surveillance is required.  We will discuss the different techniques systematically.


The first order of business is securing the surveillance job. Selling the job as it were. All the surveillance techniques learned in this manual will do no good if one does not possess the expertise to sell one’s self and secure the job. Remember when the potential client calls your office they may be shopping for confidence more than price. Although a competitive price is important your demeanor on the phone is what will sell the job. Get the potential client to discuss their problems their needs and goals of the surveillance on your initial phone contact so you can build a raptor with the person before discussing hourly rates. Remember if it is a domestic call, is it probably one of the most difficult calls that person will have to make to a stranger.  Convince the person that you are not a stranger by your demeanor, understanding and knowledge of what it takes to get the job done. Once you have secured the job and your upfront money, then and only then should surveillance preparation will begin.

Once the job is secured and the upfront money is obtained then you should prepare a case history investigative form that contains all the vital information needed to identify the target. An example of a case history form is furnished with this manual. First and foremost is to obtain an accurate address and description of the target including any distinguishing marks, tattoos etc.  What vehicle will the target possibly be driving? What are the target’s social habits? Information in the miscellaneous details section should include details of why the investigation is required.  If domestic, the information should include why, what and who the spouse suspects. If the investigation is a Worker’s Compensation case the information should include details of the accident and the type of injury. The target’s habits should also be listed. Pertinent telephone number should be included. This information is obtained from the client. Space should be provided for gathering additional information thru the investigators traditional channels such as the motor vehicle bureau, voter registration, directory assistance, etc.


Now that you have all the information needed to start the surveillance. Equipment needed for the job should be prepared with a checklist. The checklist should include, still camera, video camera, file, map, flashlight, pad and pencil, toilet facility (applies to males), window covers, binoculars and two way radios, at least one should be portable. Hats, sunglasses and a change of clothes are also recommended.


Advice on which vehicle is the perfect surveillance vehicle is plentiful. There are different opinions for each investigator you may talk with. Some recommendations that the author has received over the years are, a white truck, because white blends in and is unnoticeable or a van that is equipped with all the latest equipment. I have a friend that uses a red Cadillac and does well.  The bottom line is that the vehicle no matter what color, style or type will not be of any use if the target notices any unusual vehicle in the area. The vehicle used is of little importance if the investigator uses the techniques and cautions outlined in this manual. If the vehicle is suspected then the investigator has to change vehicle in order to continue the surveillance in another location.


If the location is in close proximity to the investigative office, a drive-by a couple of days prior to starting the surveillance is recommended. This may not be possible in all surveillance cases. The investigator will have to make on the spot surveillance decisions as to what is the best location for parking and blending on most of the jobs. The purpose of the drive-by is to log any vehicles for identification later and positive identification of the target’s address and residence at the target’s address. The investigators should log either by micro recorder or by physical notes any activity seen at the time of the drive-by. The investigator should make notes on any items that would indicate leisure activity or work activity along with a description of the house and its location within the residential block. The investigator should make notes of the surrounding neighbors and any animals seen in the neighborhood. The investigator should note all possible surveillance locations including the rear and sides of the residence and if one vehicle will do the job. The investigator should make note of all possible avenues that the target might take when leaving the location. The investigator should check all parallel routes in order to start the surveillance with knowledge of the immediate area.


The question always arises as to whether or not the investigator should notify the police when ever conducting surveillance. This is a question that has a different answer for different circumstances. My recommendation is that the investigator must do what they feel is necessary to protect their surveillance location. There is no law that I know of in any state that requires notification of the police. After all this is America and we enjoy the same freedoms as any other businessperson does. We have encountered police departments that state that they have a policy that investigators check in with them before beginning investigations. This so called policy is not law. The question the investigator should ask themselves on some surveillance jobs after assessing the surrounding area is “how much trouble do I want to bring upon myself and my surveillance?” The investigator should determine from the neighborhood if the threat of being exposed by police exist.  The decision to call in and notify the police so they won’t respond to a call from a neighbor may be a good one and then again it may not.

Golden rule number one is; “Never take your eyes off of the target.”

My recommendation for the beginning location of any surveillance is to pick the farthest location from the target’s location that will allow the investigator to see movement of any vehicles coming or going. When the surveillance is to be conducted in a residential neighborhood it is a good idea to park with the rising sun or setting sun and in the shade so the vehicle won’t be easy to see. When it is possible, blend into a business parking lot and with other vehicles and place shades over in the windshield to make it appear that the vehicle is empty. Sometimes it becomes necessary to view at the target’s location backwards in order to blend into the neighborhood. Watching in the rear view mirror while the investigators vehicle is pointed in the opposite direction is a bit more difficult because it narrows the field of vision but is just as effective. Humans are creatures of habit. Once the direction of travel of the target is established the investigator should conduct the surveillance in the opposite direction if possible. This will prevent the investigator from having to leave in a hurry to get out of the line of sight of the target and will prevent the investigator from taking their eye off of the target. The investigator should record the license plates on any vehicle that arrives at the residence. Although it may not seem relevant at the time, the plate could be used to locate the target in the event the investigator loses sight of the target. If movement at the location is detected, the investigator should react by starting the video or moving closer to assess what the movement indicates. Either the target is getting ready to leave the location or is getting ready to start activity that might be worthy of video or moving even closer to the target.The investigator must be prepared to drive aggressively while driving defensibly. Driving aggressive may require driving across a yellow light or even a red light, making U-turns where one would normally not make U-turns, cutting though parking lots etc. Mind you that this is not a recommendation but a reality. We never will recommend that an investigator break the law in any way in the pursuit of their duties.

Golden rule number Two; “if the target sees the investigator three times the investigator is burnt.”


Animals and children are the biggest worry the investigator has when parked on surveillance. Dogs will bark, cows and horses will look and sometime walk towards the investigator. Children are as bold and will approach the investigator and sometime notify the neighborhood or the target that someone is parked in the neighborhood with a camera.

From time to time neighbors, kids and sometimes the target or a member of their family will confront the investigator. The investigator must have a story ready when the confrontation occurs.  Depending on the location of the investigator from the target, the statement to the confronter could very well be, when asked what the investigator is doing at the location, none of your business. However even if this is true it may not be the very best approach because it may cause the police to be summoned to the location. Generally, the investigator could say he’s working child custody, car repossession or even staking out a location for a bond jumper arrest or something simple such as “I’m on official business.” Should the police confront the investigator it is a good idea to tell the truth as to the reason for being at the location without giving out specifics. The investigator could withhold this information; but once again it depends on how much trouble and/or aggravation the investigator wants.


When using one investigator one vehicle, tailing a target’s vehicle in the city and tailing the target’s vehicle in the country require two different approaches. When tailing in the country, a distance must be maintained to keep from being burnt. On curves when the target is out of sight, the investigator must close the distance and then back off to a safe distance while maintaining eye contact with the vehicle. This will prevent losing the vehicle should it turn off before the investigator has a chance to get a visual, whether the vehicle turns or continues straight. When tailing a target in the city the investigator must keep a closer vigilance on the moving target’s vehicle because of the possibility of the investigator hitting a red light and losing the target.  Keeping in mind the number one golden rule, “Never take your eyes off of the target” the investigator should keep as close to the target’s vehicle as possible in city block stretches without traffic lights. If traffic lights exist it is recommended that the investigator tailgate or at the very least do not leave room for any other vehicle to come between the investigator’s and the target’s vehicle eliminating the possibility of the investigator hitting the red light while the target moves across and out of sight. In the event both the investigator and the target are stopped at a traffic light and a vehicle is between the two. The investigator should leave room between themselves and the odd vehicle in the event the odd vehicle stalls or does not move when the light changes. The investigator will have enough room to go around. The investigator should be aware as to whether or not the target is dragging the light in order to check to see if they are being followed. When following a target in the city the investigator might want to keep the sun visor down blocking full view of the investigator in the target’s rearview mirror. Since some targets will be more aware than others, this will keep the investigator from being identified in the event leaving the vehicle becomes necessary for a walking tail i.e. in a mall or shopping center.

Paying close attention to the vehicles that visit the target’s residence or any vehicles that leave the target’s residence when the tailing begins may save the investigator from being “burnt” during the tailing surveillance. The two vehicles may meet in traffic and if the investigator has to quickly make a traffic light or quickly drive around a vehicle that is moving slow, the investigator may call attention to their movements if the second vehicle is traveling behind of along side of the target or the investigator. The investigator has to be just as observant of what is happening around them as the investigator might expect the target to be observing. The investigator must be cautious as to what the target might be observing without being paranoid.  If the investigator becomes paranoid, then they are sure to lose the target. One reason investigators become paranoid is because people will look at them while they are on surveillance. This is a natural occurrence because it is human nature to look at someone when you drive by. This natural occurrence should not necessarily be of concern unless the person stops at the target’s residence or leaves the target’s residence, drives-by and pays particular attention to the investigator’s vehicle. If the target is suspicious for any reason they may make a series of turns to see if they are being followed or turn down a cul-de-sac. The investigator if familiar with the area might want to wait for a time to allow the target to exit the cul-de-sac depending on the purpose of the surveillance. If the target does not exit in a reasonable amount of time the investigator will be forced to make a drive by into the cul-de-sac to observe where the vehicle is parked or any activity that the target may be engaged in. The investigator should be sure to make notations of vehicles and a description of item in the yard for possible future use. What may not make any sense at the time may turn out to be significant when solving the question as to what the target is doing at the residence.

If a target pulls into a parking space the investigator should pull into a parking space a across the street or a couple of spaces either before or after the target. Park where it will be easy to reenter the flow of traffic whenever the target starts to move again. If there are no parking spaces available, circle the block immediately, do not wait five or ten minutes and decide to find the perfect space. This is when the investigator will likely lose the target. This is the only time it will be recommended that the investigator take his eyes off of the subject. Golden rule number three; “if you want to make something happen, take your eyes off of the target i.e., leave the area for a bathroom break, to grab a quick bite in the drive thru etc.” more often than not the target will leave the location causing the investigator to report what they should try to avoid, I lost the target.  Of course, the investigator may not lose the target but I refer you back to Golden Rule # 1. Why take the chance?


Should the target enter a hotel, mall or possibly leaving the vehicle for the purpose of creating a diversion for any friends that may see the target and recognize their vehicle. The target may park the vehicle and meet someone in another location, take the bus or a taxi. The investigator may choose to continue surveillance on foot depending on the purpose of the surveillance.  Foot surveillance is sometimes referred to as shadowing. When shadowing the target on a long street with little foot traffic the investigator should give the target a bigger lead than in a crowded mall.  As when the target is in a vehicle approaching a traffic light, when the target approaches a corner the investigator should close the distance in the event the target turns and is out of sight of the investigator briefly.

The investigator is at a disadvantage if working alone because the target may exit their vehicle and walk into a mall only to exit on the other side and enter a vehicle of another person, a bus or have a taxi waiting for them. If the surveillance is being conducted with two investigators, the investigator than takes the foot surveillance should have a portable radio to report back to the investigator who remained in the vehicle to take up the mobile surveillance.

There area generally less people to deal with in residential neighborhoods. However, the investigator can count on the outside neighbors to pay particular attention to the investigator if he or she is seen too many times, especially if the investigator is acting out of place and trying not to be noticed. This is where a change of clothes comes in handy the investigator can change into a walking outfit and blend in without any suspicious being raised by the neighbor who is outside watering the lawn. It is recommended that when shadowing a target walking in a residential neighborhood the investigator should conduct the shadowing from across the street.

If the target enters an office building and enters an elevator, depending on the need to know, the investigator should enter the elevator with the target as required by Golden Rule # 1. Depending on how the surveillance has progressed thus far, the investigator should exit on the same floor as the target and walk in the opposite direction at some point the investigator can stop and turn as though they have walked in the wrong direction or have dropped something. This will give the investigator the opportunity to see which office the target has entered without raising suspicion.  If the office is a doctor’s office the investigator can enter and pretend to sign the sign in log and take a seat to observe the target. If the surveillance is to begin on the target when they leave the doctor’s office it is a good idea to arrive at the doctor’s office prior to the appointment time of the target. When the target arrives they must sign in and their name will be called when the nurse is ready for them. This give the investigator a good look for identification purpose when the appointment is over and the surveillance is to begin. After identifying which office the target entered then the investigator can return to the lobby and wait for the target to exit the building.

If the target enters a hotel the investigator must blend in with the guest and attempt to follow the target until the room is established. Once the room number is established the investigator should register and check into a room at the hotel. This will help the investigator justify being on the hotel property should a confrontation with hotel security occur. Once you establish that you are a hotel guest the hotel security will have no grounds to question or bother you. The investigator should attempt to get the room across from the target and make observations through the peephole. Making contact with hotel personnel may not be a good idea unless the investigator has dealt with them on other occasions.

When two investigators are employ on foot surveillance, one should shadow on the same side of the street and the other one should shadow on the opposite side. The investigators should change positions on occasions to keep the target from becoming familiar with either of the investigators.
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